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A Conclusion 1

Topic sentence 1 : The influence between developing a waste to energy technology option on environmental sustainability

Topic sentence 2: The relationship between Municipal Solid Waste Management in Saudi Arabia and Performance of recycled plastic waste modified

asphalt binder in Saudi Arabia

Topic sentence 3 : Waste-to-energy potential articles discuss the waste management opportunity in recycling the waste to become an added value of energy source.

Topic sentence 6: The potential of expanding the WTE production in the eastern provide of KSA under the conditions of complete burn with and without recycling

Topic 4: Plastic is a synthetic material which is widely used in a variety of different sectors.

Topic 5: Waste Management behaviours are focusing on the waste management behaviours, methodologies, and the best practices around the globe. In addition, it compares the current status of Saudi Arabian households when it comes to waste management with other countries.

Introduction: (Done By Alaa Al-Anazi)

The major part of the reviewed literature acknowledges the importance of plastic recycling to minimize their environmental impacts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia(KSA) .Six of ten reviewed articles are discussing the solid waste composition and management in KSA and emphasizing the importance of waste management strategies in KSA.Four articles discussed about plastic recycling and how it has been recommended as a method to reduce the severe impact of excessive solid waste on the environment.Together, they provide enough information to conclude that the proper selection of waste management in KSA is essential to reduce the environmental and economic implications of plastic wastes .

Body 1:( Done by Deemah Al-Shaikh)

An Argument for Developing Waste-to-Energy Technologies in Saudi Arabia. First of all, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management is a chronic environmental problem in most of the developing countries, including the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).The concept of Waste-to-Energy (WTE) is known as one of the several technologies capable of benefiting a society, which desires to reduce fossil-fuel addiction. Currently, there is no WTE facility existing in the KSA. The MSW is collected and disposed of in landfills untreated. A substantial increase in the population by 3.4 %/y over the last 35 y coupled with urbanization and raised living standards have resulted in a high generation rate of MSW. In 2014, about 15.3 Mt of MSW was generated in KSA. The food and plastic waste are the two main waste streams, which covers 70 % of the total MSW. The waste is highly organic (up to 72 %) in nature and food waste covers 50.6 % of it. An estimated electricity potential of 2.99 TWh can be generated annually, if all of the food waste is utilized in anaerobic digestion (AD) facilities. On the other hand, Plastic wastes to construction products: Status, limitations and future perspective are Plastic waste is becoming extremely threatening to the environment due to their high quantities generated which pose serious harm to both the environment and its inhabitants.Urbanization and changing human lifestyles are major contributors to the high volume of wastes generated and disposed of annually. There are human activities, in product manufacturing and post utilization that generate wastes. Yet, these wastes are mostly managed by disposal into landfills. However, high costs associated with landfilling, coupled with its ineffectiveness in some less developed precinct, and land-space consumption, can be a major constraint to the management of these wastes. The volume of solid wastes generated increases annually, whereas only a limited amount is recycled and landfilled, and a large proportion of wastes such as plastic wastes (PW) are deposited directly or indirectly to the marine environment.One of the solid wastes generated in large quantities and being of a high threat to the sustainability of our planet is plastic wastes. It has been reported that damage occurs to ecology, economy, and aesthetics when plastic debris enters into oceans [1]. About 300 million metric tons of plastic wastes have been estimated to be generated annually [2]. Large quantities of

Body 2: (Done by Alaa Al-Anazi)

The management of solid household waste is applied to reduce the negative effect of wastes on human health and the environment. In other words, the solid household waste should be disposed of and managed properly to decrease their serious socioeconomic and public health effect. The production of solid waste has a direct relationship with density of population and economic developments and can be minimized by changing some of social and traditional feeding habits as shown by a study done in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. Anjuim et al, (2016) mentioned that there is a great potential to use different technologies in Saudi Arabia to make waste management practices highly effective and eco-friendly.The management of household solid waste which consist mainly of plastics, paper, metals, organic, woods can be done through reuse, recycle and recovery of these wastes.

Body 3: ( Done by Rahaf Alsajaf )

Performance of recycled plastic waste modified asphalt binder in Saudi Arabia. First of all, The effects of polypropylene, high and low density polyethylene and recycled plastic wastes on the viscoelastic performance of the local asphalt binder were investigated. Recycled plastics were obtained by crushing and grounding the RPW to a desired size for easier blending with the asphalt binder. For asphalt concrete produced with PP-, HDPE- and LDPE, an increase of 55, 19 and 9% was observed in the modulus of elasticity, respectively. The relationship between MR of AC and non-recoverable creep compatibility of the asphalt binder has been established. The resulting viscoelastic properties of the RPW modified binder were used to model a typical coating cross section using the AASHTO mechanical experimental coating design guide software. The anticipated drawbacks of the modeled pavement show significant rim marks and fatigue performance increases in the RPW produced pavement. Second of all, in household Solid Waste Composition and Management Research, the Gulf Cooperation Council states, particularly Saudi Arabia, have significantly increased urbanization, development and populations that generate large amounts of domestic solid waste. The residents themselves must be brought together in the processes of those household wastes in pre-transport from homes. Many jobs and money can be created, such as domestic solid waste management, reuse, recycling and recovery of these wastes.



1.Dalhat, M. A., & Al-Abdul Wahhab, H. I. (2015). Performance of recycled plastic waste modified ASPHALT binder in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Pavement Engineering, 18(4), 349-357. doi:10.1080/10298436.2015.1088150

2.Hakami, B. (n.d.). Household Solid Waste Composition and Management in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia: A planning model. Household Solid Waste Composition and Management in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia: A Planning Mode. International Research Journal of Environment Sciences,. Retrieved January, 2015,from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271214200….

3.Gupta, V., Sengupta, M., Prakash, J., & Tripathy, B. C. (2016). Plant biotechnology and agriculture. Basic and Applied Aspects of Biotechnology, 415-452. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-0875-7_20

4. Miandad, R. et al., (may 2016). Solid waste management in Saudi Arabia: A review. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 1(1), 13-26.

5. 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CCBY-NC-Nlicense(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).








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