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Anatomy Amp Physiology 211 1

1. The main component of the plasma membrane, the  ______________________ molecule, has bothpolar and non-polar areas.  The non-polarportions of this molecule form the hydrophobic barrier between the hydrophilicfluid inside the cell, also known as __________________ and the hydrophilicfluid outside the cell, also known as __________________________.

2. Microvilli increase _____________________ whilesimilar looking structures called cilia _______________________________.

3. Rough ER is rough because it contains_________________ that produce these workhorses of the cell________________________________. 

4. The ‘post office’ of the cell is the_________________, so-called because its job is to____________________________________________.

5. ______________________ is the process thatcopies the message from DNA to mRNA and it occurs in this part of the cell___________________.  Translation, on theother hand uses the mRNA copy to assemble __________________ in this part ofthe cell ___________________. 

6. Name 2 of the 6 types of proteins found on theplasma membrane and state their function.

a. ____________________________________________________

b. ____________________________________________________

7. Is the DNA in the chromatin or chromosomeformat? 

a. A cell in metaphase _____________________

b. A cell in interphase _____________________

c. DNA that can be accessed for transcription______________________

8. State the location in the cell and bespecific.  Some may be in multipleplaces. 

a. DNA ________________________________

b. tRNA ________________________________

c. mRNA _______________________________

d. rRNA ________________________________

e. ribosomes ___________________________

f. transcription _________________________

g. translation ___________________________

9. Diffusion, osmosis, or transport?  And what moves where?

a. Red blood cell in 10% NaCl____________________________

b. Na+ ions inside a cell _________________________________

c. Body perfume on your instructor______________________

d. Glucose outside a cell_______________________________

10.  Name4 factors that influence the rate of diffusion. _______________________


11.  Whatis the transmembrane potential and what protein establishes one?______________________________________________________________________________

12.  Draw4 cells below, label them with the 4stages of mitosis and draw what the chromosomes look like at each stage. 

_______________  _______________  ____________________________


CriticalThinking, Clinical Application, Case Report

13. In anatomy and chemistry lab many students are exposedto chemical preservatives, phenol, formaldehyde, alcohol. Our cells break downthese toxins very effectively. What cellular organelle is responsible for this?

14. A bacterial infection in intestine tract blocks manymembrane proteins  in epithelial cellsand interferes with salt  absorption butnot water exchange. Do you expect this person shows the sign of diarrhea orconstipation, Why?

15. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by misfolded proteinsrelated to specific membrane chloride channel. The result is accumulation of thick mucus that compromises severalorgans including lung. The thick and sticky mucus clogsthe tubes that carry air in and out of your lungs. This can cause; A persistentcough that produces: thick spit and mucus, Wheezing,Breathlessness, A decreasedability to exercise, Repeated lung infections, Inflamed nasal passages or a stuffy nose and death, You suspect which organelle in Cell isresponsible for this disease?

16. Michael was a pleasant, happyinfant who seemed to be developing normally until about six months of age. Ableto roll over and sit for a few seconds, suddenly he seemed to lose thoseabilities. Soon, he no longer turned and smiled at his mother’s voice, as hehad before, and he did not seem as interested in his mobile as he once was.Concerned about Michael’s reversals in development, his anxious parents tookhim to the doctor. It took exams by several specialists to diagnose Michael’s disease.A neurologist clinched her suspicion of Tay-Sachs by looking into Michael’seyes, where she saw the telltale cherry red spot indicating the illness. A lookat his cells provided further clues– tiny enzyme-filled sacs, were swollen tohuge proportions while lacking one of the forty types of enzymes for degradingmaterials, resulting in a disease that built up lipid material on his nervecells. His nervous system would continue to fail, and he would be paralyzed andunable to see or hear by the time he died, before the age of four. Which cellularorganelle was swollen under microscope and lacked the enzyme?

17. Oncovin is a drug that damages mitoticspindle. Why such a drug can be used as a chemotherapeutic drug used to treatcancer?

18. A sterile male patient withrespiratory problem have a genetic disease  which affects both ciliaand flagella . You suspect the affected gene is related to …………………………………………..incells

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