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I Need The Third Bullet Point



This report will explain two different models of behavior change in regards torecent national health education campaigns. It will discuss anti-smokingcampaigns and how and why they are targeting certain groups of people in orderto educate them on how to lead healthier and longer lives by warning them aboutthe damage brought on by smoking.
Cigarette smoking is the major cause of many chronic and deadly conditions,such as cancer, pneumonia, stroke, heart disease, pulmonary disease,periodontal disease, and many others. In recent years, tobacco smoking hasremained the single most preventable cause of cancer and cardiovasculardiseases (heart diseases.) According to the World Health Organization, tobaccoover four million deaths are attributed to tobacco a year, and this figure isexpected to rise to 12 million deaths per year by 2025.
The two most common theories that have been used by health education campaignsto curb smoking are the theory of planned behavior and the theory of reasonedaction. Both theories may be treated as one since they share the same concepts.For humans, behavior is normally guided by three things which work hand inhand: behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and control beliefs. Behavioralbeliefs produce a positive or negative attitude toward the behavior, normativebeliefs result in subjective norms, and control beliefs give rise to perceivedbehavioral control.
 The theories of reasoned action and planned behavior depict that anindividual’s behavior is determined by their intentions to perform thebehavior, which, in the case of tobacco use or cigarette smoking, is a resultof the individual’s perceived behavioral control where the individual’sbehavior is determined by the ease or difficulty to successfully execute thebehavior. This may directly or indirectly be affected by external factors. Herethe individual may tend to use use tobacco in the presence or absence ofpromoters making it difficult for him/her to quit. Another example may be thata smoker knows that if he/she quits smoking there will be withdrawal symptoms,but the individual is confident that he/she will live a life free fromdiseases.
Second is the subjective norms that are a result of normative beliefs.Normative belief is the perception an individual has towards a certain behaviorbecause of the social out look of whether he/she should or should not engage insuch behavior. Ultimately, this results in a subjective norm where, in thiscase, the individual belief and perception towards smoking is influenced byothers’ approval or disapproval of tobacco use. The individual’s actions areweighted by their motivation to comply with others’ wishes.
 Third is the attitude towards the behavior where an individual’s beliefsabout the causes and outcomes of using tobacco are weighted by theirevaluations of the outcomes. Attitudes about smoking can be direct or indirect;a direct attitude about smoking may be a smoker’s overall assessment aboutwhether quitting is good or bad. An attitude involves how strongly a personbelieves an ultimate outcome will occur as a result of performing the behavior,coupled with an assessment of that outcome. For example, a smoker might believethat it’s very likely she will gain unwanted weight if she quits smoking.
Last is the behavioral intention where, according to both of the theories, theindividual’s determination and urge to perform something mostly leads to theoccurrence of that behavior. The factors that influence this are attitudes,norms, and perceived behavioral control about quitting smoking.
The theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior assume a similarrelationship between an individual’s attitudes about a behavior, her intention,and the actual performance of that behavior. Another assumption is that peopleprocess every piece of information separately and act accordingly. Simpleobservation of many smokers will likely reveal that even the best intentions donot necessarily result in quitting.
Social learning theory (also known as cognitive behavior therapy) is sometimesused with nicotine replacement. Here, the individual focuses on his/herconfidence in their ability to stop smoking, exploring ambivalence aboutquitting and learning ways of coping with stress and urges to smoke.

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