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Re Discussion Question Assistance


Could you assist with the following questions?

A. Discussion Question – Chapter 11 – 150 word minimumReference: Galotti, K. M. (2014). CognitivePsychology In and Out of the Laboratory (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA:SAGE.

Hi Class:

I would suspect that for a few ofyou, some of this material is beginning to actually make sense from a”holistic” perspective?

Just last week the class spenttime on memory and cognition.  This week we have turned our attention toproblem solving.

In our text we read that one ofthe heuristics is called availability.  I suspect that most of us use thisheuristic all the time without really thinking about it.

The definition of this heuristicis thisAvailability:”In other words, instances (for example, particular words, particularcommittees, or particular paths) that are more easily thought of, remembered,or computed stand out more in one’s mind”(Galotti, p. 297, 2014).

So, in my mind it would gosomething like this,I amaware that I am feeling a great deal of anxiety over such and such a situation. Upon further reflection, I am able to make sense out of why I am feeling thisanxiety.  After this realization I can then review my own personal historyfor whether there is any basis for this feeling of dread that I amexperiencing.  If I do not, then, can I mitigate this feeling based on nothaving an available memory of the possible outcome? 

If I do have a history of theoutcome being congruent with the feeling, then do I have the available means tograpple in a more successful manner with this feeling of anxiety?

Take for example thiscourse.  How did you feel at the beginning versus now.  What haschanged?

I would like to hear somethoughts on this.


Galotti, K. M. (2014). Cognitive Psychology In and Out of theLaboratory (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

B. Discussion Question – Reasoning Discussion (150 word minimum)

Reflecton the process associated with reasoning and discuss thefollowing:

Consider the following choice. I will give you a free $5 bill, nostrings attached. Optionally, I will allow you to flip a coin: heads you win$10, tails you win nothing. Do you want the $5, or do you want to flip thecoin? What does expected value theory tell you that you should do? Does thisaccurately represent your feeling about the decision?

C. Discussion Question – Response to David Logan: Reasoning(150 word minimum)

If Iwas considering doing the gamble of the five dollars or take the flip for theten dollars I probably would lake the flip for the ten dollars. because myexpectancy level is high and I believe that the best decision for the mostvalue would be to flip for the ten. Other individuals may not feel the same way.Social status, environment and ones rule of thumb ( heuristics) may lead anindividual to make a different decision. Charles N Coffer’s article states thatbehavior is a function of the expectancies one has and the value of the goaltowards an individuals is working towards. Such and approach predicts that,when more than one behavior is possible the behavior chosen will be the onewith the largest combination of expected success and value. ( Cofer 2014) Fromthis I feel that the expectancy theory could only be gauged on a person toperson basis.


CharlesN Cofer, article motivation ( sep 9 2014) retrieved fromwww.britanica.comtopicmotivation/expectancytheory.

D. Discussion Question – Response to Devlin response toDavid (150 word minimum)

Hi David – Class:

David – I like the way youare opening this discussion further.

I cruised over to our library andfound the following definition to the word heuristic.  This is a criticalidea to me for this topic.

Here it is –

heuristicn.  A rough-and-readyprocedure or rule of thumb for making a decision, forming a judgement, orsolving a problem without the application of an algorithm or an exhaustive comparison of all available options, and hence withoutany guarantee of obtaining a correct or optimal result. The concept can betraced to the work of the US economist and decision theorist HerbertA(lexander) Simon (1916-2001) who first suggested in 1957 that human decisionmakers with bounded rationality usesuch procedures when thorough examination of all available options isinfeasible. The concept was introduced into psychology in the early 1970s bythe Israeli psychologists Amos Tversky (1937-96) and Daniel Kahneman (born1934), and the most important heuristics initially identified and studied bythem were theanchoring andadjustmentheuristic, theavailabilityheuristic, and the representativenessheuristic. Also called a cognitive heuristic. See alsobase-ratefallacy,cancellationheuristic,dual-processmodel,means-endanalysis,regressionfallacy,sample sizefallacy,satisficing,simulationheuristic. Comparealgorithm.heuristicadj [From Greek heuriskein to find] (Apollo,2015).

Galotti, (2014) is much moreconcise when stating “Tversky and Kahneman (1973) argued that when facedwith the task of estimating probability, frequency, or numerosity, people relyon shortcuts or rules of thumb–heuristics–to make these judgments easier”(pg. 297).

It is my thought that most of ususe these simple, yet from a cognitive standpoint, often quite complex ‘tools’without too much conscious thought.

This is the part that ties intothe other discussions for this week.

How might we use some of theseideas in our every day lives, especially amongst colleagues, friends, lovedones?

I look forward to your thoughts.


“heuristicn.” ADictionary of Psychology. Edited by Andrew M. Colman. Oxford UniversityPress 2009.Oxford ReferenceOnline. Oxford University Press. Apollo Group. 17June 2015

Galotti, K. M.(2014). Cognitive Psychology In and Out of the Laboratory (5th ed.).Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

E.  Discussion Question : Life and GPS Discussion150 word minimum Hi Everyone:

I have been reviewing what our text (Galotti, 2014)provides for us regarding this weeks’ first discussion question.

Solving problems is a fairly complex cognitiveprocess.  Each of us solve problems every day, often times without reallygiving too much thought to what is taking place.

“I’m hungry, what will I have for lunch”?

Solving problems between ourselves and others is somewhatmore difficult sometimes.

Our author (Galotti, 2014) discusses something calledGeneral Problem Solver(s) (GPS).

What does everyone think about interpersonal conflict andthese GPS’s?  Does anyone have a thought about which ones may bebetter than others and why?

I look forward to your ideas.


Galotti, K. M. (2014). Cognitive Psychology In and Out ofthe Laboratory (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

E. Discussion Question (150 word minimum) Reference  Devlin Response to Marquita 

Thanks for picking up this thread on schemas!

I know some of the ways that schemas are detrimental tome.

An example would be known loosely as stereotyping. This would be a good place to discuss some of the ways we can be ‘trapped’ byour schemas.

In fact our text (Galotti, 2014) writes about schemas anddiscusses this type of detrimental effect.

I suspect that all of us have been ‘stereotyped’ and havedone so ourselves.

This could be considered a detrimental effect of schemas.

My question to the class is whether anyone else picked upon this too, and how have you caught yourself in a “schema”stereotype and turned it into an advantage or opportunity to learn, and if so,what was learned!


Galotti, K. M. (2014). Cognitive Psychology In and Out of theLaboratory (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

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