TrainingNeeds of the Department week four discussion 1
For this discussion, indicate how training programs can mitigate the exposureto liability and how available technology can improve training. In yourdiscussion, address the following:
Investigateat least three (3) areas of training that require continuous planning andupdating due to vicarious liability concerns.
Compareand contrast the needs and foci of the training designed to address these areasof concern.
Researchand explain three (3) forms of training that utilizes advanced technology whichis designed to meet the training needs of the department.
Our discussion, theindividuals response, list reference bad and good of post
(Ra) Three of the largest expenditures in a department’s training budgetfrom my experience are Use of force (firearms), emergency vehicle operations,and policy updates. The long term ramifications of a failure to train by thedepartment in those key areas has cost millions in liabilities. Throughdeliberate indifference, Supervisor’s failure to properly supervise or failureto act, vicarious liability often rears it’s ugly head, costing the departmentnot only money, but flirts with the devastating consent decree. Vicariousliability does not apply to a department or supervisor for merely employing an individualwho fails, rather it is the failure to properly instruct and knowingly fails toaddress illegal behavior that subjects the supervisor to liability. (Unkelbach,2005)
Any department who authorizes an individual to carry a gun and drive avehicle has an inherent responsibility to ensure that the same individual isproficient and up to the professional standard with that type of equipment. Ithas been proven through countless lawsuits that the old standard line shootqualification is insufficient. There have been numerous training scarsinflicted by this type of training, including failure to move to cover, theautomatic firing of the gun every time it comes out of the holster, sympatheticgunfire, to name a few. The benefit to the old line shoot is it is relativelyinexpensive and quick to run 50 officers through the qualification twice ayear. Courts have ruled that firearms training must be relevant and realistic.Standing on the 25 year line and firing 3 rounds in 20 seconds is anything butrealistic to modern day use of force situations. F.A.T.S. training systems areextremely expensive, but highly valuable training tools. They are essentially alife sized, fully interactive video game, with real firearms that are modifiedto interact with the system, using simulated recoil for added realism to thescenario. The training can be modified as the scenario progresses to create atruly challenging experience for even the most experienced officer. (Spivack,2011) The only downside to this training is there is no way to get shot,therefore instilling a possible sense of invincibility. The stress levels andmovement that is essential for real combat survival are truly benefits of thistraining. I have trained with these systems several times in my career. Theycan range from a portable system that can be set up with a projector in anyroom, to a dedicated trailer, to a full room set up with cover, obstacles andlighting variables. This training is fun, but also very valuable to theofficer.
Another type of firearms training for firearms that can simulate combat isSimunition training. I am an instructor for Simunitions, and they involvemodified weapons that shoot small colored soap projectiles. You can usededicated weapons for this, or purchase conversion kits to use your own dutyweapon. This version of paintball on steroids also introduces a combatsituation, that is realistic because you can (and will) get shot a lot, andthey really sting. This form of training is also valuable because you now haveto use tactics to determine justification for pulling the trigger, as well asreal consequences for getting shot, thus teaching to move and find cover anduse tactics, instead of standing there and pulling the trigger at a set target.
In both types of training, after action reviews can be valuable inidentifying areas of needed improvement, as well as monitor officers progress.
Another hi-tech solution to reduce liability through training is through theinteractive vehicle pursuit training system. These are like the FATS system inthat it is essentially a video game type set up for emergency vehicleoperations with a realistic vehicle cabin area with 3-5 computer screens tosimulate driving through any number of scenarios. They too can be tailored tochallenge every skill level with varying weather, and road conditions, as wellas other vehicles, pedestrians, bicyclists, and animals entering and exitingthe roadway. The vehicle controls are identical to actual vehicles. (FAAC.com,n.d.) I have also trained on one of these systems, it came in a large trailerand was on loan from the state. The controls were just like sitting in a early2000’s model Ford Crown Victoria, complete working speedometer, light bar andsiren controls. The biggest drawback to this system is it subjects the operatorto motion sickness. Everything in it is so realistic that your brain tells youthat you are moving, because of the screens and controls on the car are justlike you are driving around town, but your body isn’t feeling the same gravitationaland movements that your brain is telling you that you should be feeling. Icould only be on it for about 5-10 minutes at a time before I became verydizzy. Other officers actually vomited. It was fun, but you were very limitedin the amount of time you could spend in the simulator. Cost is also a hugeissue with it, but for realistic training with zero chance of accident orliability, this is the way to go for vehicle operations.
Adherence to policy unfortunately falls directly on supervisors, andtraining in policy updates is difficult to implement and gain cooperation with.Policy is boring. There are hundreds if not thousands of pages of policies thatwe are all expected to be familiar with. There are several formats I have usedrecently to attempt to help teach policy to my subordinates. Currently we use amonthly test where they must fill in the blanks through finding the specificpolicy and locate the missing words. We have used crossword puzzles in thepast, as well as oral exams, and “gameshow” type formats. Our new recruits mustread the entire policy manual within the first month of their employment andpass a test on policy. There really isn’t much that can be done to make policytraining more exciting, but it is vital that all officers are familiar enoughwith it that they can follow it, and their supervisors must be ever vigilantin ensuring compliance with policy, to avoid the vicarious liability.
FAAC.com, (n.d.) FAAC: Highest Rated Driving Simulator FAACIncorporated
Spivack, S. (July 11, 2011) F.A.T.S. – FireArms Training Simulator
Ammoland Shooting Sports news
Retrieved from: http://www.ammoland.com/2011/07/fats-firearms-training-simulator/#axzz3cov8S3y3
Unkelbach, C, (July, 2005) Chief’s Counsel: Beware: SupervisorIndividual Liability in Civil Rights Cases The Police Chief