An Overview of Models, Processes, and Techniques Related to the Interaction and Management of the Recipients of Change

Prepare a 2+ page paper in which you review the models, processes, and techniques related to the interaction and management of the recipients of change.





An Overview of Models, Processes, and Techniques Related to the Interaction and Management of the Recipients of Change


Change is part of an organization growth and development process. In the change implementation process, resistance to change by various stakeholders often emerges in many organizations. Change models provide frameworks for dealing with such resistance while maintaining a smooth flow of business. The stakeholders affected by the change include employees, external and internal shareholders, including final consumers of goods and services produced by the organization. Change management frameworks are meant to make changes easier and accelerate the change process, making change a new norm in an organization. Change management is accompanied by various processes and techniques that are selected based on the prevailing organizational situation. Some of the common techniques used in change management include flowcharting, Metrics and data collection, culture mapping, and project planning. The choice of a change management model or technique depends on the underlying organization principles and urgency for change.

Keywords: Management, Change models, Change processes, Change Techniques










An Overview of Models, Processes, and Techniques Related to the Interaction and Management of the Recipients of Change


Business organizations are dynamic institutions that change with the emerging trends time after time. Changing technology, tastes, and preferences, and business scope necessitate change. Change models, processes, and techniques are sets of guidelines that enable business organizations to adapt to new ways of doing business and also navigation through difficult business transitions (Khan & Akbar, 2020). This paper presents an overview of various change models, processes, and techniques.

Change Management Models

Lewin’s Change Management model is one of the popular models applied by most business enterprises. The model breaks down change into three distinct levels. The proponents of this model believe in breaking down the perceived change into small bits, followed by introducing new changes that are turned into the policy (Burnes, 2020). The model provides a simple way of implementing change, beginning with identifying the need for change, implementing the needed changes, and incorporating the change into the company’s culture (Burnes, 2020). Hence, it breaks down the process of implementing change into three key steps, namely, unfreezing, changing, and refreezing.

The McKinsey 7-S model is another popular change model that analyzes the various aspects of an organization, highlighting the areas that require change (Liu, 2020). The model emphasizes the analysis of the company structure, employee skills, the general company staff, management styles, organization systems, and shared values within the organization. Thus, the model is effective in examining how internal elements of an organization work together and based on the outcome; it is easier to identify the needed changes to align the organizational process effectively.

Kotter’s theory focuses on the recipients of change rather than change itself. The theory is considered more effective during an emergency, especially where a business needs to adapt to a new climate (Wentworth & Behson, 2020). The model works by creating a coalition between recipients of change, formulating a vision for change, creating a sense of emergency between recipients of change, and involvement of all the stakeholders affected by the change.

There are other change management models, such as ADKAR, Knudge, Bridges transition Model, and Kubler-Ross’s change models. ADKAR model utilizes a bottom-up approach towards change initiation in an organization and comprises of five phases that include awareness, desire, knowledge, ability, and reinforcement (Mulholland, 2019). The Knudge Theory requires recipients of change to adapt to the business environment, whereas the Bridges Transition Model depicts that change should be gradual (Mulholland, 2019). Lastly, Kubler-Ross’s Change Curve capitalize on the emotional changes on the recipients of change. This model emphasizes a focus on the five emotional stages of grief, which include denial, anger, depression, bargaining, and acceptance.

Change Management Processes and Techniques

Change management processes and techniques vary from one organization to another. However, the processes can be replicated by any other business or organization conducting business in the same line or same environment (Cameron & Green, 2020). Some of the commonly used change management techniques and processes include flowcharting, force field analysis, data simulation and analysis, culture mapping, and project plan. All these techniques and processes rely on feedback from the recipients of change within an organization.

In conclusion, the selection of the suitable change management model depends on various factors. The type of the model applied depends on the management structure, leadership approaches by the top leaders, and the urgency required for change, among others. The change techniques and processes depend on the knowledge and suitability of the approach used.












Burnes, B. (2020). The Origins of Lewin’s Three-Step Model of Change. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 56(1), 32-59.

Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2019). Making sense of change management: A complete guide to the models, tools, and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers.

Khan, A. A., & Akbar, M. A. (2020). Systematic literature review and empirical investigation of motivators for requirements change management process in global software development. Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, 32(4), e2242.

Liu, H. (2020). Research on Library Data Management Reform: Discussion on McKinsey 7S System Thinking Model. In 2020 6th International Conference on Information Management (ICIM) (pp. 295-298). IEEE.

Mulholland, B. (2017, July 24). 8 critical change management models to evolve and survive. Retrieved from

Wentworth, D. K., Behson, S. J., & Kelley, C. L. (2020). Implementing a new student evaluation of teaching system using the Kotter change model. Studies in Higher Education, 45(3), 511-523.


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