Autonomous Vehicles / Driverless Cars / AI

The paper must contain at least 2 scholarly, peer reviewed articles (I have provided a few) the last two could be from sources like newspaper, The Washing Post, etc. Ted Talks also offer a good amount of information in the field in which I will also link (These could be the last two sources) My initial research question was originally “How Automous vehicles will affect the future of transportation”. You can play around with this idea if you’d like. I just need the 4-5 sources, with two being scholarly.

Autonomous Vehicles


The autonomous vehicles’ era has caused several challenges in different industries and society. The increase of such vehicles on the roads results in several changes, including ownership of vehicles and the correction of traffic management and control (Tettamanti et al. 244). The use of autonomous vehicles (AV) will result in a change. There are numerous benefits and challenges of using such vehicles in the transit industry. The current paper provides information from research by various scholars on the impact of the use of autonomous vehicles in the future. The researchers elaborate on the consequences of the maximum adoption of the AVs to the road system.


Tettamanti, Tamás et al. “Impacts Of Autonomous Cars From A Traffic Engineering Perspective.” Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering, vol. 44, no. 4, 2016, pp. 244-250.

The research by Tettamanti et al. aims to enlighten readers on the upcoming trends and challenges of the use of autonomous vehicles in addition to the incorporation of an automated transport system (244). The researchers provide information on an investigation of the autonomous vehicles and their overall effects (248). Nonetheless, the effects of such vehicles to classical-based traffic flow is essential for the examination of planning, traffic analysis, and control of a transport system. In the current system, the dynamic and static control approaches of traffic are overseen by people. The composition of autonomous cars’ requires complex control measures. The primary reason for the critical examination of such a system is that the dynamics of the autonomous vehicles could differ from the people-driven vehicles significantly.

Autonomous vehicles will drive conservatively. The approach means that vehicles can comply with various traffic policies. Moreover, autonomous cars will result in the growth of headways and reduction of traveling speed (Tettamanti et al. 249). However, in the long term, the adoption of automation, such as cooperative driving will increase the traveling speed. The changes identified by Tettamanti et al. require an assessment of the existing traffic models (249). The reaction time and perceptibility of autonomous cars entail concepts beyond the capabilities of humans. Therefore, there is a need for thorough investigations of future impacts.

Lutin, Jerome. “Not If, But When: Autonomous Driving And The Future Of Transit.” Journal Of Public Transportation, vol. 21, no. 1, 2018, pp. 92-103.

Lutin discusses the effects of autonomous cars on traffic behaviors (92). He provides insights into the impact of the use of the aforementioned vehicles in public transportation. The study explores how the use of autonomous vehicles can improve public transport, such as buses, in addition to advancing services provided to disabled individuals. Furthermore, Lutin provides recommendations necessary for the transit agencies to interact with suppliers of the vehicles and government to promote studies and establishment of relevant policies, which will enable the transport industry to be efficient (92).

Transit is categorized as a conservative industry. Moreover, change is complicated when the consumers judge particular performances based on the ability of an entity to deliver every day in the absence of disruptions (Lutin 92). Rapid advancement in technology and the introduction of autonomous vehicles result in changes to the future of the transit industry. Transit will ultimately operate and compete with autonomous vehicles. Several companies have included a ride-sharing approach that has a high demand among the population.

Hancock, P. A. et al. “On The Future Of Transportation In An Era Of Automated And Autonomous Vehicles.” Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, vol. 116, no. 16, 2019, pp. 7684-7691.

Automated Vehicles are currently used in many highways within the US. The current issues about the use of such vehicles include questions about the acceptance of the implementation of such technologies (Hancock et al. 2). Such questions are focused on how the technologies will affect the evolution of the transit systems, socialization, and the people within the system. Hancock et al. argue that there is a need to evaluate whether it is necessary for autonomous vehicles (AV) to be fully automated or partially controlled by humans (2). Of importance is the changes in mobility since the automated operations of the vehicles will rapidly increase in the future.

Hancock et al. discuss the issues that are caused by the adoption of AVs and future challenges based on the integration of cars to the current transport system (44). After evaluating the issues, the researchers offer research avenues and engagement that can aid in the identification and implementation of robust deployments. Two critical elements concern the issue of operator trust and transparency in communication. For the issue of trust, the processes of design are necessary for the trust levels by the occupants of the vehicles due to reliability.

Achieving the above goal is complex and challenging; however, it is crucial. The process is complicated because researchers seek to understand the context-based reliability of varying forms of semi and full automation provided by different manufacturers. Insufficiency in the trust of the vehicles will affect both misuse and usage (Hancock et al. .45). The organization with the most trust due to the perceptions of the reliability of their service has a competitive edge.

Bagloee, Saeed Asadi et al. “Autonomous Vehicles: Challenges, Opportunities, And Future Implications For Transportation Policies.” Journal Of Modern Transportation, vol. 24, no. 4, 2016, pp. 284-303.

Bagloee et al. investigate the opportunities and challenges regarding the rise of transit policies due to the use of autonomous vehicles (284). AV technological approaches lead to a decrease in the costs of transportation and an increase in low-income individuals’ accessibility. Moreover, AV allows for more comfortable transportation for disabled individuals. The technology includes various applications and effects on the future. Bagloee et al. provide a review of existing literature and analysis of the issues of ethics and safety of the machines (284).

A vital element of the establishment and use of AV is communication over the connected cars. There exists a gap in AV technologies concerning routing. Moreover, connection technologies offer an opportunity for the implementation of intelligent and effective routing systems (Bagloee et al. 284). The researchers suggest the incorporation of a conceptual model for navigation based on various AVs on a particular network to analyze optimization. Furthermore, Bagloee et al. attempt to elaborate on future opportunities and challenges that could occur with implementation (284). Additionally, the research conceptualizes the element of navigation for the AV that is necessary for efficient circulations.

While transportation fosters prosperity in society, it includes negative outcomes that include accidents and pollution. Bagloee et al. argue that there is an increase in the studies estimating the costs of the aforementioned issue in relation to conventional vehicles (287). Overall, the AVs are perceived to potentially eliminate several negative impacts of the transportation systems of the world. For instance, the external costs could be high due to the overall global fuel prices. Low-income families that rely on public transportation find it challenging to adjust to the above-identified costs. As a result, the AVs will be beneficial due to an increase in accessibility.

Litman, Todd. “Autonomous Vehicle Implementation Predictions Implications For Transport Planning.” Victoria Transport Policy Insitute, 2020, pp. 1-38.,

Litman explores the effects of AVs and their implications in design and planning issues (1). The future can only be predicted but is unknown; however, planning for the unforeseen requires prediction of particular needs and conditions (Litman 3). Several decision-makers and professionals, including analysts, engineers, and planners are working on designing the operationalization of AVs. Additionally, scholars seek to identify the impacts of the vehicles and patterns of development in the future. As a result, there is a need for parking and road infrastructure necessary for the operations of AVs.

Predictions can bypass key costs and obstacles. Several technical issues should be solved before the operations of AVs in all situations and conditions, including weather and road conditions. Vehicle failures are a crucial issue that could result in the loss of life and fatal injuries (Litman 3). Autonomous-based driving could increase travel and cause issues with the traffic system. Therefore, such vehicles will be developed and adopted over a long time. People hope that the AVs will be a solution to transit issues. Several researchers predict that a vehicle capable of operating in all conditions will be affordable, common, and reliable by 2030 (Litman 29)

However, individuals that want to benefit from the industry operations propagate the above predictions. Moreover, some costs and obstacles affect vehicle operations. Vehicles on public roads experience frequent interactions with various objects, including cyclists, other vehicles, pedestrians, and animals. Litman suggests there is a need for substantial profess before the vehicles can be relied on for both private and public transportation.


As the transit industry is advancing towards increased marketing and adoption of autonomous vehicles, there is a need for further engagement by both the manufacturers and the federal government. The response of the transport industry to the inclusion of autonomous vehicles is inevitable. My research shows that autonomous cars are increasingly becoming part of the process of traffic plans in different cities and towns. Within the past decades, the planners could make assumptions on the limitation of travel choices to autos and rail. However, the current situation requires planners to deal with unprecedented changes in the use of autonomous vehicles.

Works Cited

Bagloee, Saeed Asadi et al. “Autonomous Vehicles: Challenges, Opportunities, And Future Implications For Transportation Policies”. Journal Of Modern Transportation, vol 24, no. 4, 2016, pp. 284-303.

Hancock, P. A. et al. “On The Future Of Transportation In An Era Of Automated And Autonomous Vehicles”. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, vol 116, no. 16, 2019, pp. 7684-7691.

Litman, Todd. “Autonomous Vehicle Implementation Predictions Implications For Transport Planning”. Victoria Transport Policy Insitute, 2020, pp. 1-38., Accessed 26 Feb 2020.

Lutin, Jerome. “Not If, But When: Autonomous Driving And The Future Of Transit”. Journal Of Public Transportation, vol 21, no. 1, 2018, pp. 92-103.

Tettamanti, Tamás et al. “Impacts Of Autonomous Cars From A Traffic Engineering Perspective”. Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering, vol 44, no. 4, 2016, pp. 244-250.


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