week 11 and worth 130 points
Your position as the consultant is ending and it is time to submityour complete report. In this assignment, you will make final changesfor Assignments 2 through 5 and put the sections into one document.
In addition to what you have already completed and compiled for thisportfolio, you should write a two to three (2-3) page conclusion inwhich you:
- Describe your final three to five (3-5) observations about thesuccess of the agency, highlighting the value of the agency to U.S.citizens, its success at meeting its goals, and areas where it canimprove.
- Recommend two or three (2-3) strategies for improvement, providing sound justification for each.
- Describeyour experience in researching the agency and interviewingrepresentatives, highlighting the value the project has to your career,the positive elements, and the challenges you faced during the process.
- Include the required sections with appropriate titles in the portfolio.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
- Betyped, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), withone-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APAor school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additionalinstructions.
- Include the following sections in the portfolio:
- Title Page (Cover Page)
- Thecover page must contain the title of the assignment, the student’sname, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date.
- Table of Contents
- Assignments 2-5 with specific headers / titles
- Reference Page
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
- Recommend ways to improve specific areas of public administration.
- Analyzethe fundamental components of effective budgeting, including sources ofrevenue, political influences, purposes, types, and accountability ofprogram administrators.
- Use technology and information resources to research issues in public administration.
- Write clearly and concisely about public administration using proper writing mechanics.
Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality,logic/organization of the paper, and language and writing skills, usingthe following rubric.
Click here to view the grading rubric.
Assignment #2 Historyof Environmental Protection Agency
Historically,EnvironmentalProtection Agency was proposed by President Richard Nixon. In December 2nd1970, Nixon signed the order that led into the establishing of the E.P.A and itbegan its operations in the same year. Its headquarters were at Washington DC andthe Agency is led by an administrator,who is appointed by the President andapproved by the congress.Amongst some of the responsibilities of the EPA, isthe administration of the Clean Air Actof 1970 that was formed to regulate theair pollution amongst the industries and motor vehicles. Clean Water Act of1972 regulating discharge of industrial waste waters and treatments ofsewages.E.P.A’s managed to enforce the fixing of catalytic converters in carsat its earlier ages which led to the reduction in the air pollution by a thirdin USA in the year 1970 to 1990.
Theacts were later on reauthorized, and among those acts are; Clean Water Act in1987 and clean water act in 1990. Also at this time some other acts wereintroduced e.g. the Nuclear Policy Act (1982) and the Energy Star Program of1992.This agency has its enforcement powers which include suctions and givingof fines and others.
Itsgoals and objectives for its formation were majorly based on reduction of environmentalpollutions. Among other reasons for its formation was to conduct environmentalassessments and check on environmental pollution and the ways to reduce them.It was also formed to conduct researches which will leads to the breakthroughof minimization of air pollution. It’s also responsible for the enforcement andthe maintenance of national standards and various environmental laws.Reducingair pollution to reduce the effects of the greenhouse gases and maintain theozone layer. Improving the accessibility of safe and clean water, enhancingjoint preparedness on environmental response, promoting the management of bothmaterials and wastes and clean sites, and enhancing compliance assurance andenvironmental stewardship are part of Environmental protection agency.
Organizationaldesign of environmental protection agency
EnvironmentalProtection Agency has got different and severaldepartments that are all underthe office of the administrator. This organization helps in the running of theAgency as a whole by making its operations run smoothly. For better understandingthis departments and the Agency’s design are further analyzed as follows:
Fromthe top part of it is the office of the administrator, which gives theexecutivethe logistical support for the agency administrator. Also the officeof the administrator provides support to the environmental protection Agency’sprograms and its activities for it to protect the human health and theenvironment. Administrator is further sub-divided into the following offices;office of the children’s health organization, civil right office, office ofcongressional and intergovernmental relations, executive services office,executive secretariat office, homeland security office, policy office, publicaffairs office, and science advisory board .
Under the office of theadministrator are the headquarters departments, which include;
I). Department of theadministration and resource management-it provides the national policy,leadership and management of various important support functions for theagency.
ii). Department of theair radiation-this office is concerned with the national programs, policies andregulations, which control air pollution and protection of the radiation,industrial air pollution, and climate change
iii). Department ofchemical pollution and pollution prevention-it work to prevent the occurrence ofthe pollution. This therefore has helped in improving the homes workplaces andschools by making them clean and healthy and hence becoming safer.
iv). Department of ChiefFinancial Officer-this is the department that deals with Agency’s annualbudgeting and performance plan.It also provides agency with the financialservices and it also develop the Agency’s annual accountability report.
v). Department of theenforcement and compliance assurance-it protects communities which are mostlyaffected by the pollution and also goes after pollution problems.
vi). Department of theenvironmental information-it is headed by the chief information officer. Itmanages the life cycle of the information to support the mission of the agencywhich is to protect human health and the environment.
vii). Department of thegeneral counsel-this is he office that acts as the legal advisor of theenvironmental protection agency.
viii). Department ofthe inspector general- it helps in the protecting of the environment in a moreefficient and cost effective manner.
ix). Department of theinternational and tribal affairs-it identifies environmental problems and helpsin the implementation of the technical and policy options to address thoseproblems.
x). Department of landemergency management-deals with the emergency response and waste programs interms of providing policies guidance and directions.
xi). Department of theresearch and development- this is a body that conducts research and helps theEPA in making major decisions that will help in the safeguarding of the humanhealth and the its ecosystem in generalfrom the environmental pollutants.
xii). Department ofwater- this department deals with water. It ensures that the drinking water aresafe and protect human health by maintaining the aquatic ecosystem.
When it comes to theeffectiveness in making major decisions and policies and the provision of theservices to the primary recipients, Environmental Protection Agency aims andstrives at minimizing the risks and maximizing benefits to the society as thereceipt the economy and the environment. In its decision making it recognizesthe society, economy and the environment as a whole. This will help in makingmajor effective decision that will lead to the maintenance of the environmentfrom the pollution and also the provision of the services to the recipient.
For the recommendation,I recommend that those departments which play major roles in the Agency shouldbe given more emphasis and should be and should be allocated with moreresources for it to improve the effectiveness of its operation and the deliveryof quality and best services in the agency. Also the organizational structureshould be simple and not complicated.
Assessmentof the organizational design
Departmentoffices and the assistant department offices
Factorsthat affect the Agency’s success and its influence on the effectiveness of thedecision making and implementation
Environmentalprotection agency has a competitive market allowances as compared to other entriesexisting.This is because it controls large part of the market share, making thedecision making process easy and effective implementation of such decisions.
Thisis due to the low compliance costs and by giving of the allowances such aspurchase allowances for the pollution control equipment. This reduction in costmakes the implementation of its decisions easy, leading to its success.
Low transaction costs.PA has a lower transaction costs this will lead to the effective decision makingand is implementation
Factorsthat affect the affect the organization in implementation of its policy for themeeting of its goals and objectives
Forthe organization to implement it decision, it has to consider the changes inthe technology because the more the sophistication of the technology the moreit makes it easy for the implementation of its policies.
Interestgroups are inclusive of the citizens, environmental advocacy organizations andeven the citizens.For the organization to implement its policies without affectingit goals and objective it should consider the interest groups.
Economic conditionsalso should be considered when making and implementing the policies ordecisions.
Recommendationfor the planning and implementation
EPA shoulduse a more improved technology as part of its technology so as to be up to dateand make it easy to contact the outside world and the conducting of itsresearches and interviews.
EPAshould always consider the interested groups so as to always not violate any ofthe group in their course of its operations.The agency should considerminimizing on different costs and maximizing on the provision of services. Thiswill help reduce the operation cost and hence utilizing the resources they have.
Assignment #3 Agency Evaluation
In the recent past, regarding an agency like InternationalConsortium of Investigative Journalists several changes have been put in placewith the changing world to improve the administrative functions of variousagencies. It is the duty of theadministration to perform several functions in an organization. Some of thefunctions include staffing, decision-making, file keeping staff motivation,recruitment among others(Lundgren & McMakin, 2013). With the currenttechnological changes and ethics in business however, there has been calls toimprove the service delivery among administrators. This has been done through anumber of ways to enhance their functions. The main two are discussed in theparagraphs below.
Therehas been serious administrative responsibility. This means that the various organizationshave clearly stipulated clear guidelines in the administration of theorganization. This involves dividing the administrative roles in variousdepartments to enhance the performance. Several managers in charge of various departmentsare normally answerable to the overall manager. This helps in easing the workof the manager as he now manages several subsections and he can now evaluatewhich section is failing. Therefore, it is important to employ the bestsuitable person to suit a particular department toimprove the overallperformance in the organization. This has been an upcoming trait in managementof the organization toimprove efficiency and accuracy, which had earlier beendiluted, by the prior single management.
Ethicalimplications in business have also been looked at. This has been done in anumber of ways to various key players in the economy. Firstly, there is thelegal implication to stakeholders. Stakeholders include the customers in themarket, the employees, the owners of the industry and the society. On the partof the customers, it is the responsibility of the organization to make surethat they avail goods of the required quality and quantity at the requiredprice(Edwards, 2013). On the employees, it is the duty of the administrativebody to ensure that their workers are paid in time and at good pay. In addition,they should ensure that their workers enjoy good working conditions when doingbusiness and make sure that they have good financial benefits after retirementnot forgetting insurance and quality medical cover. On the owners, they shouldtry to provide transparent information to encourage new investors in themarket. The more transparent an organization is the more likelihood ofattracting more and more investors. Lastly on the part of the society it is theduty of the administration to protect its clients from pollution, and unethicalpractices not forgetting giving back to the society through creation of socialamenities. Secondly, the administration should ensure that the image of theorganization is upheld. This can be done through creating a trademark for thebusiness and marketing the business through the social media plat forms. Lastlythe organization should develop a listening hear to the grievances agitated byany stakeholder in the business. This helps greatly in enhancing peacefulcoexistence in the business and among the various stakeholders hence improvingthe output in the work.
Looking at an agency like International Consortium ofInvestigative Journalists, the leadership is mainly vested on educatedpersonnel in the relevant field. They work hand in hand fulfilling theinterests of the clients, the owners, the government and the society. However, theseagencies suffer from serious political intervention. The political leaderscontrol the factors of production. Therefore, they largely influence theperformance of this agency. In most cases, they influence the agency negativelyas they seem to advertise according to the wish of the political leaders. Inaddition, the owners of the agencies also determine the content beingadvertised and vice versa(Trillo, 2015). Therefore, both the owners and thepolitical leaders largely influence the success of the organization. Ifindependence could be cultivated, the performance of advertising agencies canimprove drastically.
International Consortium of Investigative Journalists as anagency is tasked with the task of ensuring that the pollution and transnationalcrime networks, and the actions of powerful figures in business and government.The news media, hobbled by short attention spans and lack of resources, areeven less of a match for those who would harm the public interest. Broadcastnetworks and major newspapers have closed foreign bureaus, cut travel budgets,and disbanded investigative teams. We are losing our eyes and ears around theworld precisely when we need them most. Meanwhile, in many developingcountries, investigative reporters are killed, threatened, or imprisoned withalarming regularity. Amazingly unbowed by these life-and-death realities,journalists are in dire need of help from colleagues abroad, many of whom dosimilar work and can offer support.
Strategies for Consideration toAdministrative Processes
International Consortium of Investigative Journalists agencyhas plans for administrative ethics, leadership, and legal to improve theagency’s operation and its primary recipients. Some of these major plansinclude making sure that they work in accordance with their set principles indoing their work. This can be done by upholding ethics in business, whichentails serving their clients fully if they maintain the set guidelines withoutfear or favor of those who occupy this political leadership positions in thegovernment(Korte, 2013). In terms of leadership, they should employ people onmerit to get the best suitable persons for the job. On terms of the legalbasis, they should operate within the stipulated constitution to avoidconfusion. In case, of threats from the political leaders, legal measuresshould be taken.
Recommendations for Improvements toAdministrative Processes
In order to achieve change serious recommendations need to beset in place to achieve change. The first recommendation is to create somesense of independence. International Consortium of Investigative Journalistsagency needs to develop some independence in doing their work since thisreduces the chances of political intervention in doing their affairs in doingtheir business.
The second recommendation is ensuring that the interests ofthe clients come first before anything else. It is important for agencies tounderstand that clients are of the prime significance and they mainly help theorganization in their operations. Therefore, they should not consider too muchthe political leaders in doing their business. Instead they should focus oncustomer satisfaction and profitability.
Provide proof of one to two (1-2)interviews by submitting the completed interview form
with a list of questions for andresponses from each interviewee. (Put this in the Appendix
under Interview Forms.)
Question1: Are agencies independent?
Response1: No, they tend to be interfered by thepolitical leaders and they affect them negatively.
Question2: What are some of the recommendation can you give to these agencies likeInternational Consortium of Investigative Journalists agency in this case?
Response2: My advice would be that, they should venture in serious independent businessfree from any kind of interference.
Question1: Are agencies independent?
Response1: Yes, they are there to do businessand they have freedom to choose whatever they want to do provided they getdesired profits.
Question2: What are some of the recommendation can you give to these agencies likeInternational Consortium of Investigative Journalists agency in this case?
Response2: They should continue doing their business normally.
Lundgren, R. E., & McMakin, A. H.(2013). Risk communication: A handbook for communicating environmental, safety,and health risks. John Wiley & Sons.
Edwards, B. (2013). ProgramEvaluation Plan for the Perpich Center for Arts Education Governance,Administration, Financial and Performance Structures (Doctoral dissertation,Hubert H. Humphrey School of Public Affairs).
Trillo, S. L. (2015). Cross-sectorialpolicy coalitions: a case study of Sustain Ontario: the Alliance for HealthyFood and Farming’s efforts to reform public policy. How a policy coalition’schoices contributed to its legitimacy and influence (Doctoral dissertation,York University Toronto).
Korte, N. (2013). The PoliticalEconomy of Public Administration Reforms in Southeast Asia (Doctoraldissertation, University of Hamburg).
Assignment #4 Centre of Medicare and Medicaid Services
Human Resource Process
After analyzing and evaluating theMedicare and Medicaid agency, I managed to come out with some components inwhich the agency has to employ for it to hire and retain a diverse workforce.Hiring is the first process to be carried out. If the company is serious aboutimplementing diversity, it must create a diverse pool of candidates. Employingfrom the same place always, using the same methods, the result will always bethe same people. To becompetitive in today’s market creativity is of an essence. One needs to gowhere the candidates are and have a long time with them so as to get goodselections.
• One of the major components of hiringemployees is by carrying out a research and developing a list of colleges thathistorically has scores of people from various backgrounds and sending a teamto that particular school to conduct recruitment.
• Begin hiring from the middle class and highschool it is important for the agency to attend career days and be ready todiscuss the benefits of working for the organization and the industry.
• Contacting various student leaders oncampuses- the company will then ask them to suggest the best candidates or evenhelp in including notices of the organization in the campuses noticeboards.
• Developing a relationship with differentagencies in the community- this will enable them to know about theopportunities available in the office.
To retain a diversified workforce thecompany will need to acquire some essential components in maintainingdiversification these include:
• The use of more inclusive languages andvisuals in the rules and orientation.it is necessary to make sure that nopronoun is gender based.
• Market the agency diversity initiativeextensively so that people from outside gets the word that a companyenvironment is a perfect place for everyone to work.
• Creating processes to make everybody feelwelcome and included in the agency.
Implication of HumanResource Workforce
The current employment trend in theorganization is that of the aging labor force. This makes the company face apotential loss because of retirement. Aging can cause labor shortage thusdisrupting the steady supply of energy. The presence of the elderly in theagency is a significant challenge. There is a minimal growth of the firmbecause the aging workforce provides less productivity and fewer savings whichhave an adverse impact on the agency. Because of the aging workforce, thecompany incurs increased pension benefits and health care cost.
As the aging of the labor forceincrease, the growth of the economic structure of the agency is affected. Thereis a shortage of labor due to the aging workforce, increased healthcare needsand the significant decrease in public and private investments are some of thenegative impacts caused by the aging work force. Expertise, technicalknowledge, and experience are absent in the agency due to the retirement ofsenior employees.
The institution to avoid laborshortages should retain the aging workforces in doing so the agency would havealso kept knowledge and expertise of the employees. To improve the growth ofthe firm strategies such as developing the workforce, alteration of workforcepolicies and practices should be implemented to ensure that the senioremployees are retained. Retirement age should be increased and also alteringthe retirement incentives to meet the expectations of longevity. Old agepension agreement should be flexible. These will ensure that the agency’sproducts and services are at constant and of the best quality. Training shouldbe provided to meet the labor shortage and to make sure that professiondevelopment among the senior employees is met.
Succession Planning forHuman Resource Management
Many organizations fail to addresssuccession planning in a systematic way. It is mainly because maybe the agencyis facing other organizational challenges which they see as of high prioritythan to think of who their next manager will be. In succession planning some ofthe required managerial skills to be considered include:
• Knowledgeable- the person chosen to succeedthe outgoing manager should have vast knowledge about the agency he/she shouldknow how the organization functions and the crucial parts of the company suchas finance. These will ensure that even after the outgoing manager leaves theagency will continue working properly. When a chosen person has knowledge ofthe body, he/she will understand the employees much better and help improve theareas where he/she had seen flaws. By doing this, the firm will develop itsstandards.
• Quality- the person chosen should have therequired quality for a managerial job. These will ensure that he or she can beable to make certain crucial decisions necessary for the betterment of theagency. Such that in the case ofemployment or off-loading workers the manager will be doing so that theorganization can benefit from the decision.
• Desirable-in order for one to be chosen forthe managerial position the person must have the desire to take the big step.He/she should be self-motivated and have the self-belief that it is possible torun the firm. A desirable person is always ambitious, and his or her priorityalways is on the welfare of the company.
A recommendation of succession planhas much importance. A succession plan is a means of making sure that theagency is prepared with a scheme to support service continuity when the manageror key people in the organization leave. There is a continuous supply ofqualified individuals who are ready to take over in case the manager leaves theinstitution. A good succession plan acts as an alignment between the agencyvision and the human resource that shows an understanding of the need to haveproper staffing to achieve strategic plans.
It also brings a commitment to developinga career path for employees who will ensure the organization has an ability torecruit and retain top performing employees. The agency will gain an outsidereputation for investing and providing opportunities to its people and alsosupport advancement. Carrying out the plan also helps in passing a message tothe employees that they are valuable.
For the agency to implement programsin preparation for the above skills which are not visible in the office’sworkforce as a method of promotion and current employee’s advancement, theagency needs to:
• Identify that person who is always incollaboration with the manager.
• Develop a plan that the eventual successoracquires the required skills and knowledge to take the job after the managerdeparts.
• Ensure that the chosen individual isexposed to a broad range of experiences so that the person will understandwider the operation of the agency.
The organization plan may includeformal mentoring and training in more specific aspects of the position. Morethan one person should be identified so as to rate the different level ofcompetence in the areas.
Job analysis and design
As a consultant, I advise themanagement of the Medicare agency on the administration of the human resourcespolicies and the procedures. It is part of my job also to serve as an internalconsultant to analyze the company’s current HR programs and recommend solutionsto the organization. As part of my work I develop, analyze and implement humanresource policies and procedures for the agency. I also ensure that HR programsand services are in compliance with the established policies and procedures.Preparing and maintain reports related to specific HR project is also my job. Ihelp the agency with ideas on the development and coordination of recommendedchanges concerning workflow. It is my duty to provide training sessions relatedto specific HR programs.
For one to be an administrativeconsultant he/she must have some specifications to be compliant with the job.This includes:
• Self –confidence- every consultant must besure about themselves for them to be able to impact wisdom and knowledge toothers without a doubt. The self –confidence will be measured by the outcome ofthe decision made as a result of the piece of knowledge you gave out. If theadvice you gave out had no self-confidence in what you were saying, then itmeans you were not sure and hence poor results thus one will be evaluated as anunderperformer and vice-versa.
• Trustworthy- it is important for anadministrative consultant to have a strong bond with their clients. These are acquired by displaying one’sintegrity to obtain trust. Confidence isalways evaluated when the customer can come for pieces of advice from theconsultant on a crucial matter. If the client consults you and fails to returnbut rather choose to look for another specialist, then it will only mean thatthere is no trust at all in your consultancy.
• Excellent listening skills- to be evaluatedas a performer an administrative consultant should always fully understand theproblems by listening carefully to the needs of their clients before coming upwith solutions
The agency, using the executiveconsultant post will ensure that the organization’s human capital serves thebest interests of the company. This is by creating and developing a humanresources model specific for the group. Also, the post will ensure that theagency effectively uses its personnel to achieve its stated goals while alsoensuring the workforce is productive and efficient.
Administrative consultant post mightbe employed by the agency to establish company policies and procedures andensure that they are complying with applicable laws concerning their employees.
Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. (2014). Armstrong’shandbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers
Baird, L., & Meshoulam, I. (1988). Managing twofits of strategic human resource management. Academy of Management review,13(1), 116-128.
Delery, J. E., & Doty, D. H. (1996). Modes oftheorizing in strategic human resource management: Tests of universalistic,contingency, and configurational performance predictions. Academy of managementJournal, 39(4), 802-835.
Gist, M. E. (1987). Self-efficacy: Implications fororganizational behavior and human resource management. Academy of managementreview, 12(3), 472-485.
Assignment # 5
Departmenton Health and Human Services FY2012 Budget Analysis
The department of Health HumanServices (HHS) is the principal Federal Agency tasked with protection of theHealth of all the Americans and equally providing essential Human services. Themain subcommittee with the jurisdiction over the HHS federal budget is theHouse Appropriations Subcommittee. The House and the senate committee aretasked with the review of the budget requests and they can accept it, slash ito review it upwards.
ThePresident requested a discretionary budget of $79.9 billion for the Departmentof Health and Human Services (HHS) for FY 2012. This value represented a $72million decrease or 0.09 percent reduction decrease compared to the FY 2010.The budget request would include funding for two major pieces of legislationthat passed in the 11th Congress, including the Food Safety Modernization Act,which would be overseen by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and thePatient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), also known as the healthcarereform law. The stated priorities in the President’s FY 2012 budget for HHS andits offices included:
· Implementation of the healthcare reformlaw;
· Investing in America’s competitivenessthrough funding for biomedical research;
· Strengthening of the health professionsworkforce through training of primary care providers; and
· Continuing enhanced support forhigh-quality early childhood programs by investing in others to assistvulnerable populations (Purdy, 2007).
Aspart of HHS efforts to enhance health care, the budget request highlighted theactivities at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) focused on