Ethical leadership

Write a minimum 350-word paper on leadership ethics.

Include a minimum of 3 peer-reviewed resources. You may use your textbook or the selected resources from the University Library. Do not limit yourself to the selected resources as the University Library has a wealth of peer-reviewed sources for your research.

Format your paper according to APA guidelines using the APA Paper Template attached below.

Include APA-formatted in-text citations, a title page, and a references page.

Sample Paper for APA 7th Edition
Begin the paper here. Double space the entire document. Indent the first line by one-tab key (0.5 inches). University of Phoenix accepts one space after a period. The first paragraph is the introduction in every paper and does not contain a subheading. Provide a brief overview of the general topic and end with a preview of the topics discussed in the paper. Unless the paper is a self-assessment analysis or a reflections paper, never write using first person: I, me, my, mine, etc. Never write academic papers using second person: you, your, yours, etc. Using editorial “we” and “our” is not acceptable. For more information on writing style and grammar, review the APA Manual, Chapter 4.
In-Text Citations
Formatting of in-text citations throughout the paper varies, with options to ensure readability and writing style. The following sections provide a brief overview of two types of in-text citations: narrative and parenthetical. Review the APA Manual, Chapter 8 for more information regarding the formatting of personal communications, block quotes, secondary sources, and citing several sources to support a single claim.
Narrative Citations
Narrative citations are citations where the author or authors are listed as part of the sentence. Alexander and Smith (2019) examined ……… Notice that “and” is used between authors’ names in narrative citations. Also, always use past tense verbs when associated with a citation since the source was published prior to the date used in the paper. If three or more authors are being cited, for example a source written by Thomas, Dickinson, and Harrison, list the first author and then, use et al. Thomas et al. (2018) stated……..

Parenthetical Citations
A parenthetical citation is a citation where the writer presents the statement followed by the citation. The writing process requires ……… (Alexander & Smith, 2019). Notice an ampersand (&) is used between names in parenthetical citations. A parenthetical citation for three or more authors requires only the first author’s last name and the addition of et al. Improvement strategies for writing include….. (Thomas et al., 2018).
The examples shown in the narrative and parenthetical citations sections are paraphrases. Paraphrases are the writer’s interpretation of an author’s statement. None of the exact words used by the author should appear in a paraphrase. Direct quotes occur when the writer copies the exact words used by an author. To properly acknowledge the sentence as a direct quote, quotation marks must surround the quoted material and a page number or paragraph number (if pages are not marked) must appear in the citation: Alexander and Smith (2019) stated “.. ………” (p. 423); or, “The guidelines for writing an academic paper require ………” (Alexander & Smith, 2019, para. 6). The use of direct quotes in scholarly writing is discouraged as the ability to paraphrase indicates critical thinking skills.
Headings identify paragraph topics. The centered heading listed above is classified as a Level 1 heading. Following the introduction, the body of the paper begins with a Level 1 heading. Level 2 headings are formatted flush left, as shown in the In-Text section above, and reflect subtopics of the Level 1 heading. Many papers use only Level 1 headings throughout, yet most papers use a combination of Level 1 and Level 2 headings. More complex topics may require additional headings. For guidance with headings, consult the APA Manual Chapter 2, Section 2.27 for examples.
The final Level 1 heading in every paper is for the conclusion section and eliminates the need to add “In summary,” or “In conclusion” as the start of the final paragraph. The conclusion summarizes the key points made in the paper with no new information or analysis. The conclusion is simply a recap of the most notable information presented in the paper.

Journal Article Example
Ainsworth, S., & Purss, A. (2009). Same time, next year? Personnel Review, 38(3), 217-235.
Authored Book Example
Bateman, T. S., & Snell, S. A. (2007). Management: Leading and collaborating in a competitive world (7th ed.). McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Chapter in an Edited Book Example
Eatough, V., & Smith, J. (2008). Interpretative phenomenological analysis. In C. Willig & W. Stainton-Rogers (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research in psychology (pp. 179-195). Sage Publications.
Magazine Article Example
Kuttner, R. (2003, September 8). The great American pension-fund robbery. Business Week, 24-26.
Dissertation Example
Lisbon, E. I. (2010). A study of leadership preferences by generation. (Publication No. 3455137) [Doctoral dissertation, Our Lady of the Lake University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
Webpage on a Website Example
Moore, T. G. (2017, December). Self-compassion may improve resiliency. Mayo Clinic.

Website Example
World Health Organization (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunization



Ethical leadership

One of the underlying questions in today’s world leadership practices is the ability of leaders to engage ethically. Reviews by Mayer, Aquino, Greenbaum, and Kuenzi (2012) show that there is a growing concern among practitioners and researchers centred on the relevance of ethical leadership in leadership. This phenomenon can be attributed to the increased need for trust among different stakeholders in the achievements made in an organizational setting. According to Ofori (2009), leaders ought to behave in an ethical way considering the influence they have on followers and other stakeholders in the organization. Ethics in leadership practices show the need to uphold the moral requirements and behaviours, which alludes to the acceptable ways premised on philosophical principles that determine what is right or wrong. The relationship between leaders and followers contribute to w ethical practices in the organizational context. In this light, ethical leadership is a construct of various diverse elements that impact on the relationship that emerges between the leaders and their followers.

According to Mayer et al. (2012), and ethical leader is one who engages in practice in a manner that prevents followers from doing the wrong thing but promotes principles and actions that symbolize morality. Additionally, ethical leaders are exemplified by following the universal standard of moral behaviour. This includes leading in a strategic approach that allows the process of inquiry to establish what is right or wrong and a mode of conduct that influences the followers to uphold desirable behaviours (Neubert, Carlson, Kacmar, Roberts, & Chonko, 2009). As a result, ethical leadership is a demonstration of normative and desirable conduct by individuals in positions of power in their responsibilities and interpersonal relationship to influence similar behaviour among the followers. Suggestively, ethical leadership is associated with leaders acting as role models and their increased engagement with their followers through effective communication processes and a democratic approach in decision making.

Nevertheless, Ofori (2009) notes that not all organizational settings facilitate the development of ethical leadership as an organization adopt different direction approaches. For instance, transactional leadership often discourages ethical leadership, mainly when the performance of the team or organization relies on the expertise of the leaders. However, transformational leadership supports ethical leadership by including different organizational stakeholders in decision making. Additionally, transformational leadership offers numerous opportunities that can be exploited by leaders as role models by allowing them to engage in the workplace and influence their followers’ actions.


Mayer, D. M., Aquino, K., Greenbaum, R. L., & Kuenzi, M. (2012). Who displays ethical leadership, and why does it matter? An examination of antecedents and consequences of ethical leadership. Academy of Management Journal, 55(1), 151-171.

Neubert, M. J., Carlson, D. S., Kacmar, K. M., Roberts, J. A., & Chonko, L. B. (2009). The virtuous influence of ethical leadership behaviour: Evidence from the field. Journal of Business Ethics, 90(2), 157-170.

Ofori, G. (2009). Ethical leadership: Examining the relationships with the full range leadership model, employee outcomes, and organizational culture. Journal of Business Ethics, 90(4), 533.


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