1. Baconwrites that in investigating nature, “our only hope lies in a true induction”(#14). In #19, he explains that thismethod “derives axioms from the senses and particulars, rising by a gradual andunbroken ascent, so that it arrives at the most general axioms last of all.”
a. Explainhow this approach differs from the Cartesian method of deduction.
b. WouldDescartes’ system be what Bacon calls in #44 an ‘Idol of the Theater”? How so? How does such ‘idolatry’ impede the progress of ‘a true induction”?
c. ExplainHume’s skeptical challenge to the reliability of induction, particularly withrespect to what we called in class the Principle of the Uniformity of Nature.
2. In Section XI of the Enquiry,Epicurus says: “you have no ground to ascribe to him any qualities butwhat you see he has actually exerted and displayed in his production.”
a. Whatdoes this mean? And what is thesignificance of this claim for speculative theology?
b. Howis this claim consistent with Hume’s empiricism?
3. What does it mean for Kant to say that space and time are‘forms of sensibility’ (or ‘forms of intuition’)? Why do these ‘forms’ set limits to thepossibility of human knowledge?
4. Why does Kant think that the proposition “Every event hasa cause” is a synthetic judgment? Explain what it means for the causal maxim to be both a syntheticjudgment and an item of knowledge we have a priori. Finally, whyis it important for natural science to establish that we have warrant tobelieve this?
5. What is the doctrine of the ‘thing-in-itself’ supposed tobe, and what does Kant think is our epistemic relation to it? How mightyou criticize this doctrine? Howmight you defend it?
6. Explain what an antinomy of reason is supposed to be, andwhy (according to Kant) human reason has this ‘peculiar fate.’ Use an example from #51 of the Prolegomena (p. 700 of our text) toillustrate and clarify your answer.
7. In the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant writes:“Intuitions without concepts are blind; thoughts without content areempty.” What does the first claimmean? What does the second claimmean? What do they mean whencombined?
8. In Section V, Part II of the Enquiry, Hume writes that “the sentiment of belief is nothingbut a conception more intense and steady than what attends the merefictions of the imagination….” Explain what you understand Hume to mean in this passage. Can this be right? How does Kant’s doctrine of judgmentdiffer from Hume’s account of belief?
9. What does Kant mean when he says, “although all ourknowledge begins with experience, it does not follow that it all arisesout of experience.” Compare thisview with the doctrines of Descartes and Hume.
10. In Section XII, Part I of the Enquiry, Hume writes: “To have recourse to the veracity of theSupreme Being in order to prove the veracity of the senses is surelymaking a very unexpected circuit.” What response is Hume making to Descartes’ argument in Meditation Six for the existence ofmaterial things?