Social integration s influenced by several factors, including demographic and personal characteristics. Immigrants are often excluded from the societies in their host countries. Immigrants encounter challenges such as language barriers, low education levels, and unemployment, which influence their social integration. LGBT immigrants face more discrimination compared to their non-LGBT counterparts. LGBT immigrants belong to sexual and racial minority groups. Some LGBT immigrants seek asylum to their host countries with the perception of better treatment due to freedom accorded to the LGBT and decriminalized homosexuality. However, these individuals face systemic discrimination from their LGBT counterparts in the host countries and their non-LGBT family members and friends. Language proficiency, education level, employment, standard of living and wage levels are some of the social and economic factors influencing LGBT integration in society. Unemployed and less educated LGBT immigrants are often excluded from social and voluntary events and can also not participate in the same.








Table of Contents

Abstract 6

Chapter 1: Introduction. 7

Overview.. 7

Background Information. 7

LGBT Immigration Challenges 9

Efforts to Curb the Challenges in LGBT Immigration Processes 11

Prioritizing LGBT in Refugee Admissions 15

Statement of the Problem.. 17

Purpose Statement 18

Research Questions 18

General Research Question. 18

Specific Research Questions 19

Definition of Terms 19

Chapter 2: Literature Review.. 20

Overview.. 20

Theoretical Framework. 20

Theories of Social Integration. 20

Social Baseline Theory. 23

Attachment Theory. 24

Conceptual Framework. 27

LGBT Immigrants’ Social Integration. 27

Social Factors Influencing LGBT Integration. 30

Economic Integration of LGBT Immigrants 33

Influence of Gender Identification on Inclusion/Exclusion. 35

Differences between LGBT and non-LGBT Immigrant Integration. 37

Chapter 3: Methodology. 40

Overview.. 40

Research Question. 40

Research Design. 40

Instrumentation. 41

Study Population. 44

Sampling. 44

Data Collection. 46

Data Analysis 48

Quality Assessments 49

Data Quality Control 49

Validity and Reliability. 50

Ethical Considerations 51

Assumptions of the study. 53

Possible Study Limitations 53

Chapter Four: Results and Findings 54

Overview.. 54

Response Rate. 54

Demographic Information. 55

Level of Education. 55

Thematic Analysis 56

  1. Social Factors 56
  2. Economic Factors 57

III.      Integration Differences 57

Summary. 58

Appendices 59

References 72














Chapter 1: Introduction


The topic for the study is how the LGBT immigrants perceive their integration in the United Kingdom. The need to study the topic has been propelled by the urge to determine the complexities and challenges characterizing the integration of LGBT in the western society as they seek better life opportunities. The topic is important because the individuals from this cluster are bound to encounter distinctive challenges and discrimination due to their gender identity, sexual orientation, and immigration status. Immigrant LGBT often flee their country in fear of prosecution from their home countries. The cultural, traditional, and historical restrictions of these countries could refrain these immigrants from freely expressing their sexual orientation and gender identity. Western countries have unique cultures and traditions that could offer freedom for LGBT immigrants fleeing their home countries. However, immigrating to the United Kingdom may not meet the desires of the LGBT due to past and present occurrences that could result in a complex reality. Immigration is a topic that has overly dominated past and current research, with the trend likely to be replicated in continuing research efforts. The findings from the study would create a foundation for further study on LGBT immigrants and possibly influence formulation of policies to ensure seamless integration.

Background Information

The United Kingdom (UK) annually record an increasing number of immigrants from various parts of the world. People immigrate to the UK for several reasons including formal studies or in search for work and better life opportunities. However, some immigrants move to the UK as refugees and asylum seekers to flee prosecution imprisonment and persecution in their home countries.  The United Kingdom has recorded a surge immigrant from both European Union (EU) and non-EU countries. Drinkwater and Robinson (2013, p. 101) highlighted the increased immigrant population in the UK from 3.2 million in 1991 to 6.6 million in 2008. The increased migration flows from 2001 characterized by the influx of immigrants from Central and Eastern Europe were attributed to the 2004 European enlargement.  Simionescu et al. (2017, p. 29) highlighted the immigration issue as among the primary causes of Brexit. Most individuals in support of Brexit expressed the United Kingdom’s desire to control immigration. Immigrants to the United Kingdom often encounter challenges due to the locals’ perception of increased competition over available resources and job opportunities.  Simionescu (2017, p. 32) highlighted the concerns for competition over jobs. However, the author outlined the increased job opportunities due to the growing demand associated with goods and services used by immigrants.

Immigrants encounter several challenges, eliciting the possibility of integration challenges. According to Drinkwater and Robinson (2013, p. 100), the negative attitudes towards immigrants are due to the notion that they are entirely dependent on welfare payments collected through natives’ taxes. The immigration dimension has changed over the recent years. In the past, people could move to other countries due to political instability and human rights issues such as poverty, hunger, and natural calamities. Sexual orientation was not a probable course for migration and immigrant organizations paid minimal attention to sexual minorities. Akin (2018, p. 29) observed that the Refugee Convention had disregarded sexual orientation as reason for seeking protection due the consideration of sexuality as private and personal. Until 1990s, LGBT immigrants risked deportation on the grounds of sexual orientation.  Akin (2018, p. 29) noted that since 1981, sexual orientation gained recognition as a reasonable base upon which one could claim the refugee status.

The differentiated reference for members of the LGBT community in the western countries could foster the influx of LGBT immigrants. Masullo (2015, p. 386) highlighted social identity as associated with the social, cultural, and historical contexts upon which it emerges. The bisexual, gay, lesbian, and transgender are terms emanating from the West and associated with white people. The titles may not be an important reference for LGBT immigrants, who may end up losing their cultural identity for associating with LGBT. Masullo (2015, p. 386) stated that coming out is an essential element reinforcing homosexual model in western countries. However, the same could not point of reference in defining LGBT immigrant’s sexual identity. The different attitudes on sexual orientation explain the LGBT immigration as people strive for safety and sense of belonging. Nicol, Gates-Gasse and Mule (2014, p. 2) outlined the criminalization of homosexuality in 78 countries and five countries employing the death punishment for those found guilty.  Criminalizing LGBT, while receiving state reinforcement or not, could result in the social sanction of individuals involved in the practice.  Kim (2021, p. 2) outlined the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNCHR) realization of the increased number of LGBQT+ refugees forced to run away from their homes. LGBQT+ refugees who flee their countries fearing prosecution due to their sexual expression and gender identity that deviates from societal norm.

LGBT Immigration Challenges

LGBT immigrants are bound to encounter challenges similar to those faced by their counterparts moving to other western countries. Kim (2021, p. 2) outlined LGBQT+ refugees as facing hostility from their home countries and fail to connect with the diaspora communities during the exile and resettlement process. Other challenges included the psychological burden of belonging to a minority sexual group.  Kim (2021, p. 2) the LGBTQ migrants deal with high rates of asylum refusal compared to other refugee groups. In most cases, the LGBT immigrants flee their family members, punishable laws, and a discriminating culture. In most countries that LGBT immigrants flee from, they live in family set up that includes multiple generations. These family set ups are characterized by similar cultural values, reducing the possibility of independence and privately expressing their sexuality. Early experiences of LGBT immigrants before opting to flee are characterized by different types of abuse, harassment and oppression from family and community members. The values of the traditional family set up are used as a justification against homosexual practices. Fleeing from their families and communities elicit the concept of chosen families among the LGBT immigrants. Kim (2021, p. 3) highlighted a chosen family as the group of individuals who intentionally choose each other to play crucial roles in each other’s lives. As a result of the shared situations, the chosen family for the LGBT provide the emotional and psychological support, more than the biological family.

The admission process of the LGBT immigrants is bound to influence the influx of LGBQT+ refugees. The legislation frameworks on refugees’ admissions differ from one country to another. Bennett (2013, p. 25) highlighted the confusion, disempowerment, and trauma characterizing the UK asylum process for lesbian asylum seekers. People seeking asylum on the grounds of fear of persecution emanating from their sexual orientation need to make their case as per the ‘particular social’ group section in the1951 Refugee Convention. The court processes were strenuous for the women who had to relieve their traumatic experiences that would prove their worth of receiving the asylum. Bennett (2013, p. 26) denoted the refugees’ constant pressure to be believed and the frustrations due to the inability to comprehend decisions by the UK Border Agency (UKBA) and the immigration judges. The arising concern among the asylum seekers was the decision makers’ understanding and interpretation of sexuality and proceeding with assumptions based on the lesbians’ physical outlook and behavioral characteristics.   These assumptions significantly impacted the LGBT women seeking asylum. Bennett (2013, p. 26) noted that the asylum-seeking process involves speaking about one’s sexuality in public and legal context, an aspect that was severely troubling for the LGBT immigrants. In the highlighted study involving lesbian women seeking asylum, the participants outlined that they had not previously spoken about their sexuality and identified with LGBT.  As a result, the description of the LGBT identity at the UKBA interview screening was considered stressful. The participants were not accorded any privacy during the interview process. Bennett (2013, p. 26) observed that the lesbian seeking asylum in the UK had encountered violence in their home country from local enforcers in their home countries. As result, the court appearances and legal interviews were exhausting and emotionally draining.

The challenges of the asylum-seeking process for the LGBT+ refugees and the insensitivity of the individuals involved in the process are some of the challenges that LGBT immigrants encounter as they strive to move to countries where there is an assurance of their safety and freedom of association.  Bennett (2013, p. 26) outlined the women who denounced the lack of sympathy and insensitivity of the UKBA officials and immigration judges who failed to recognize the difficulties faced by the women as they highlighted their experiences. The asylum-seeking processes ended up affecting the mental health and wellbeing of the involved women. These women were asked questions such as justification for being gay while their home countries prohibited the practices, the frequently attended gay clubs and the number of gay marches they had attended. While these questions could have geared towards determining the eligibility of the asylum seekers, they were overly insensitive, eliciting the possibility of systematic discrimination characterizing the LGBT immigration processes.

Efforts to Curb the Challenges in LGBT Immigration Processes

The decried challenges on the challenging asylum processes for the LGBT immigrants prompted the examination of the LGGBT asylum seekers as they moved to the European countries. Jakuleviciene, Bieksa, and Samuchovaite (2012, p.196) highlighted the 2011 examination of the circumstances encountered by LGBT asylum seekers in 26 European countries. The efforts of the national experts were a research project under the European Refugee Fund dubbed ‘Fleeing Homophobia Seeking Safety in Europe: Best Practices on the Legal Position of LGBT Asylum Seekers in the UE Member States.’ The national studies and the collected reports resulted in a report; ‘Fleeing Homophobia: Asylum Claims Related to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Europe.’ The reported denoted the different examination of LGBT asylum applications. Jakuleviciene, Bieksa, and Samuchovaite (2012, p.196) observed that in numerous occasions, the European state practice applying to the LGBT asylum applications were below the required threshold as detailed by the international and European human rights and laws governing refugee practice. The rates of asylum denial among the LGBT immigrants and refugees are higher than the other refugees, with the increased possibility of them being returned to their home countries where they express the fear of being imprisoned and or facing a death sentence. Jakuleviciene, Bieksa, and Samuchovaite (2012, p.196) outlined the eight key points denoted in the report on the qualifications and the application procedures characterizing the LGBT cases. These key issues include reception, credibility assessment, disguising sexual and gender identity, and protection from persecution, among other aspects.

The refugee challenges in the LGBT processes were examined with the possible solutions to the issues highlighted. Jakuleviciene, Bieksa, and Samuchovaite (2012, p.197) stated that the statements provided by the asylum seekers are the primary evidence in the asylum cases, and the decision makers examine these statements to determine their credibility. Credibility assessment is contentious for the LGBT asylum cases as there may not by political, racial or ethnic information upon which the provided evidence could be compared against. The UNHR provided guidelines to be adhered to during the LGBT asylum cases, some of which are not followed. Jakuleviciene, Bieksa, and Samuchovaite (2012, p. 197) observed that during the LGBT assessment, the stereotypes associated with their sexual orientation should be avoided. LGBT applicants should also be assessed by trained officials with adequate knowledge of the unique issues encountered by the LGBT people. Jakuleviciene, Bieksa, and Samuchovaite (2012, p. 197) noted that the credibility assessment could also depend on medical examinations and witness statements. The report also considered the reception conditions for the LGBT refugee seeking asylum in European countries.

Running from a hostility in one’s home country does not necessarily translate to a smooth transition into western countries that have legalized homosexuality and where LGBT members openly speak out. Jakuleviciene, Bieksa, and Samuchovaite (2012, p. 204) recognized the widespread nature of the harassment and violence directed towards LGBT applicants in European countries. In most cases, asylum seekers from other countries report incidences of sexual abuse, social exclusion, and even physical harassment. The Receptive Directive is insufficient in tracking and preventing violence in reception and accommodation facilities. The report suggested the member countries’ formulation of processes, training, and guidelines to mitigate the harassment and violence towards LGBT immigrants.

The LGBT immigrants also encounter qualification challenges due to belonging to countries that have criminalized sexual orientation and gender identity. Bieksa (2011, p. 1557) observed that under the UN Human Rights Committee and the European Court of Human Rights, criminalizing homosexuality translates to abused rights to privacy, with the criminalization aspect eliciting a violation on the laws applying he rights to the private life. However, Bieksa (2011, p. 1557) stated that the international human rights do not safeguard the members of the LGBT from the expulsion by their home country that criminalizes same sex relationships and violates right to privacy. With the absence of protection from the general international human rights, LGBT strive to find international protection by seeking asylum and invoking refugee law.

The challenges encountered by the LGBT immigrants when seeking asylum seekers and those attributed to insufficiency and insensitivity of the decision makers could be associated with inadequate training a failure on the government’s part. These decision makers act in the capacity of the government in which LGBT immigrants seek asylum, and the government should ensure that the fronted individuals provide a perfect representation. Gray and McDowall (2013, p. 22) observed that before 201o, the UK government did not have a specific guidance on training required for decision makers examining claims staged on sexual orientation grounds. In 2010, and after pressure from political, judicial and civil society, the same government issued a speedy policy guidance that paved way for progress. Before the policy inception in July 2010, individual seeking asylum on based on sexual orientation or gender identity were ranked as requiring international protection and advised to discreetly return to their home countries. Gray and McDowall (2013, p. 22) noted that the asylum decision makers in UK centered on the capacity to remain discreet about sexuality among the individuals seeking asylum. The discretion test depended on the applicant’s testimony and evidence from the country of origin on their capacity to tolerate a secret livelihood for the returned individuals. Gray and McDowall (2013, p. 22) noted that the undertaken test conflicted UNHCR’s 2008 Guidance Note on Refugee Claims associated with sexual orientation and Gender Identity. According to the Guidance Note, a state cannot expect or compel an individual to modify or disguise their sexual identity to avoid persecution such as being isolated or barred from having intimate relationships. The Guidance Note clarifies that requiring the gays and lesbians to remain hidden is a discriminatory act that necessitates persecution.

The discretion test was not just the single challenge in the LGBT immigration and asylum process. The test was among the other factors that influenced the decision makers’ examination of the forwarded asylum cases. Research by the various NGOs in the UK denoted the other systemic issues that influenced the decision-making quality. Gray and McDowall (2013, p. 22) noted that the research by the NGOs unearthed the systematic discrimination by the judiciary and the UK authorities during interaction with individuals seeking asylum on grounds of sexual orientation. The research also highlighted the refusal of 98% of gay and lesbian claims based on explanation such as an applicant’s ability to relocate to another part of their country to evade persecution. Another argument was that the applicants’ home country had not enforced laws criminalizing same-sex relationships, and there was no adequate ground to fear persecution. Controversial credibility assessments that did not provide adequate proof of the asylum claimant as being gay or lesbians also resulted in the refusal of the asylum claim. These assessments included of individuals who studied and developed notions of the mannerisms of gays and lesbians to develop adequate ground for their asylum. However, efforts by the UK government fostered the success of the asylum cases for the LGBT+ refugees. Gray and McDowall (2013, p. 23) outlined the UK government’s May 2010 public commitment to ensure that no gay or lesbian would be forced to go back to their home country for prosecution. The government expressed the intention to derail the deportation of asylum seekers who have been forced to flee from their countries because their sexual orientation and gender identity puts them at risk of imprisonment and persecution. By the culmination of 2010 the decision makers at the UK Border Agency with their supervisors and managers had received training alongside the public positioning of the Asylum Policy Instruction. Individuals who failed to highlight their sexual orientation during the early stages of the asylum process were rejected without considering the underlying factors.

Prioritizing LGBT in Refugee Admissions

Refugees move to other countries for several reasons, among them war, hunger, and climate. Change. These reasons affect the wellbeing of the refugees. Others also flee due to fear of political, religious, social, and national persecution. Most people argue that the LGBT+ refugee should not be accorded asylum due to their sexual orientation as it is a result of their personal choice. However, LGBT should be accommodated as the persecutions they go through infringes their human rights. Vitikainen (2020, p. 65) stated that a LGBT refugee is vulnerable to various persecution forms, among them prosecution, discrimination, and structural injustice. These vulnerabilities should be considered during refugee admissions. However, many deserving individuals have failed to secure asylum for LGBT refugees. Vitikainen (2020, p. 66) highlighted the invalidity of discretion reasoning, with the pervasiveness of LGBT persons hiding their identity eliciting questions in the various steps of the asylum process. The article highlighted that the LGBT can qualify to be accommodated as refugees. For a state that does not have a well-established anti-gay legislation and fails to protect the LGBT persons against homo or transphobic violence the ‘well-founded fear of persecution’ requirement should be formulated.  Vitikainen (2020, p. 67) denoted the ethical issues arising from the invasive and inconsiderate methods applied in proving a refugee’s LGBT status. Individual seeking this proof often claim that it is imperative to differentiate genuine claims from false applications and derail the opportunistic utilization of the LGBT banner by non-LGBT individuals.  These methods include the physical degradation such as the phallometric tests to determine physical arousal and the interview or interrogation methods that invade on the refugees’ privacy. Vitikainen (2020, p. 67) observed that in the said interviews, the LGBT refugees were required to graphically detail their sexual histories and acts they have participated in. Considering the social stigma and the persecution the LGBT refugees encounter, a requirement to give intimate details to the authorities stands out as a demanding and invasive trait. Vitikainen (2020, p. 67) noted that LGBT refugees have often been forced to conceal their sexuality, and could be unreasonable to expect these refugees to openly share and explain their sexuality. Combining these aspects with the fear of persecution, the LGBT refugees struggling with highlighting their sexuality fail to develop a ‘well-founded fear of persecution.’

The challenges faced by LGBT refugees necessitates their prioritization. There are various injustices forms LGBT refugees deal with. The elevation of the injustices could result in state-sponsored persecution. Vitikainen (2020, p. 67) highlighted criminalization as the first injustice form LGBT could encounter. LGBT persons deal with anti-gay or anti-LGBT criminal codes. The author noted that despite the question of whether the highlighted codes qualify as ‘well-founded fear of persecution,’ the author termed these codes, whether effected or not as active state-sponsored persecution. ‘Well-founded fear of persecution’ is a considerable faction in awarding asylum to LGBT refugees. Vitikainen (2020, p. 68) noted that besides the state-sponsored persecution, LGBT refugees could encounter other injustices such as harassment and violence, upon which they lack state protection. A gay person who is assaulted and cannot report the incident to the law enforcers provide an example of state-sponsored persecution. Violence, harassment, and discrimination could also be undertaken by state agents such as the police who indulge in systematic discrimination despite being legally required to protect all. Structural injustice is the third injustice form LGBT refugees encountered. Vitikainen (2020, p. 69) highlighted structural injustice as occurring when various individuals and institutions align with the generally accepted norms with the aftermath being the systematic power imbalance that deprive a particular group.

Statement of the Problem

LGBT immigrants are bound to encounter challenges emanating from their social identity, sexual orientation, and immigration status. In their home countries, LGBT immigrants face hostility, harassment, and discrimination, injustices that force them to flee their countries in fear of persecution. Most LGBT immigrants move to the western countries that have legalized homosexuality. However, the transition is not an assurance of social integration. LGBT in the western countries also encounter challenges in areas pertaining healthcare access and equitable employment. The world is widely divided by ideologies, religion, national, and racial affiliations, and LGBT integration in society may be unachievable at the moment. The intolerance directed towards the individuals associated with the not so conventional sexual orientation and gender identity hinders inclusivity, derailing social integration. Human rights and LGBT community at large has been spearheading the recognition and inclusivity for LGBT members while speaking against the persecution and systematic discrimination directed towards individuals from the minority sexual groups.  Social integration for LGBT immigrants could involve the positive social relationships and garnering the sense of community without being judged on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. Available literate has done the bare minimum in covering the challenges associated with the social exclusion of the LGBT immigrants as it has done with the heterosexuals in society. The cohesion of the LGBT communities in the western countries does not assure the integration of the LGBT immigrants in the same community due to aspects such as racial and cultural differences. LGBT immigrants’ integration in society is a situation requiring a multifaceted approach due to underlying factors playing the contributory role. These factors include age, gender inequality, and unfair social norms and practices. Harmful perspectives could be propelled by individuals close to the LGBT in western countries, slowing down the LGBT immigrants’ integration into the same communities. LGBT communities in the countries LGBT immigrants move to due to fear of persecution have an instrumental role to play in ensuring their social integration.

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this study is to determine how the LGBT immigrants perceive their integration in the United Kingdom. Discrimination and harassment is one of the challenges that the LGBT immigrants could encounter. The study would also denote the possible solutions the United Kingdom would embrace in improving social integration.

Research Questions

General Research Question

How do LGBT immigrants in the United Kingdom perceive their integration process?

Specific Research Questions

  1. What are the social factors that LGBT immigrants perceive in the United Kingdom as important in their successful integration?
  2. What are the economic factors that LGBT immigrants in the United Kingdom perceive as important in their successful integration?
  3. What are the differences do LGBT immigrants perceive in their integration with non-LGBT immigrants?
  4. How does gender identification affect the inclusion and exclusion of immigrants in the United Kingdom?

Definition of Terms

  1. LGBT: lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transgender
  2. Integration: The process of including new entrants into a society’s structure.
  3. LGBT+ refugees: LGBT members moving from their home countries due to fear of persecution as a result of their gender identity and sexual orientation.
  4. LGBT immigrants: LGBT moving to other parts of their home country or world due to discrimination emanating from their sexual orientation and gender identity.






Chapter 2: Literature Review


This chapter explore the available evidence on LGBT immigration integration in society. Available research evidence primarily focuses on integration while considering the racial and cultural differences. Minimal research attention is directed towards the integration of LGBT immigrants. LGBT immigrants are perceived to a have better experience in western countries such as the United Kingdom as opposed to their home countries. This chapter covers the theoretical and conceptual framework, among other aspects to provide a better understanding of how the LGBT immigrants in the UK perceive their integration process.

Theoretical Framework

This section explores the relevant theories associated with the integration in society. The garnered concepts would provide a better understanding of LGBT immigrants’ integration in society, and how the community members perceive the same.

Theories of Social Integration

Social integration is a crucial concept that applies to all humans regardless of their demographic characteristics. Social integration often affects the health and wellbeing of involved individuals. Tan and Wang (2019, p. 1) observed that people with social connectedness and enjoy high social support ten to live longer. In a study denoting the causal relationship between social relationships and mortality, the article highlighted the existence of epidemiological studies highlighted social relationships as one of the crucial factors in mortality risk. Tan and Wang (2019, p. 1) stated that according to a meta-analysis that incorporated 148 studies, functional and structural relationships resulted in a 50% decline in mortality rates, a figure that was similar to health risk factors such as cigarette smoking. Social relationships improve health outcomes through factors such as stress reduction and control of health behaviors. The health benefits and improved quality of life necessitates the concept’s exploration through the experience of LGBT immigrants in the United Kingdom. Kourachanis (2019, p. 222) noted that social integration is a sophisticated concept that encompasses the values and bonds that link an individual to the society. Social integration could also refer to the process by which people form a social agreement based on the uniform system of values and meanings. The different utilization of the term social integration has resulted in the different meanings associated with the same. Kourachanis (2019, p. 222) highlighted the definition of integration as the debate between treaties and cultures due to past and present factors, and country of origin and country of residence where the identity is continually challenged, resulting in its fluctuation. Various factors influence social integration with aspects such as education, housing, and employment crucial in the fulfillment of social integration. Social integration entails the emergence of social bridges and bonds.

Social networks play an instrumental role in the development of social integration. The gender inequalities characterizing the refugee and immigrant populations impact their social integration of the community in the host country. The cultural aspects of individuals seeking asylum such as dressing and dressing are instrumental in achieving social integration. Social integration is a complex issue that bypasses the administrative and legal aspects that allows the presence of refugees in the host country. Tinè (2017, p. 26) outlined that social integration is an ignored factor assumed to resolve itself in state-organized resettlement. According to the author, social integration becomes crucial to the immigrants after they have addressed their immediate needs such as hunger and shelter. I building up on the theory of integration while applying to the immigration perspective, Tinè (2017, p. 29) explored Peter Blau (1960) social integration theory through numerous contexts. The authors highlighted Blau as initiating discussion from Émile Durkheim’s social theory examining social change, social integration, and consolidated consciousness. According to Durkheim, the labor division does not necessarily result in social solidarity, necessitating mediation between society and individuals as provided by the state. In working on this theory, Tinè (2017, p. 29) highlighted the impact of acceptance and attraction in fostering integration in a given group. The application of the social integration theory in multiculturalism context results in the definition of the social identity and cultural diversity boundaries displaying the dual aspects of social integration/segregation. The social exchange theory highlights that acceptance among a group of people is dependent on the exchange medium.

Social Integration in the Modern Era

The changes in characterizing in the modern era and attributed to the disruptive technology have impacted various livelihood aspects, including social integration. Immigrants’ integration deviates due to the availability of communication channels. Sánchez-Franco, Buitrago-Esquinas and Yñiguez-Ovando (2015, p. 6) highlighted social networking sites (SNSs) as providing tools that for their members to create and maintain social integration. Community integration engaging in social networking sites provide benefits attributed to wellbeing. Madakam and Tripathi (2021, p. 8) highlighted the drastic development of interactive social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter as transforming communication. Social networks ensure that its members can communicate, share knowledge and discuss their interests. Social media platforms provide a unique form of integration. Madakam and Tripathi (2021, p. 12) observed that according to the social media integration theory, social media provides a platform for communication, feedback and exposure. The affordable nature of the social media tools mean that people enjoy the interactions through the platforms. The social media integration theory denotes social media as having an adequate scope compare to the conventional communication channels.  Social media ensures the feeling of social integration regardless of the physical disconnect, eliminating the possibility of social exclusion impacting health and wellbeing. Cheung (2012, p. 471) highlighted sexual exclusion as a crucial determinant of wellbeing in a society. Social exclusion is the opposite of social integration, and involves being sidelined in matters to do with resources access and opportunities, with the denial resulting in some form of discrimination. Social exclusion in a society pertains to the society as opposed to an individual’s social conditions.

Social Baseline Theory

The social baseline theory (SBT) examines the social networks and impact on wellbeing through metabolic processes. Roger, Torshei and Thuen (2014, p.2) denotes the phylogenetic design of the human brain to gain from social networks when engaging in involving mental tasks, as a means of conserving metabolic resources. These tasks could include creative thinking and informed decision making. This theory thrives on the principle of risk reduction and load distribution as possible explanation bow the brain metabolically benefits from social interactions.  Risk distribution denotes how individuals in a group perceive and deal with environmental risk as opposed to how the corresponding risk could be resolved by individuals who are social isolated. Gross and Proffitt (2013, p. 1) stated that the social baseline theory was established by Coan, Beckes, and colleagues as a measure of social resources. According to this theory, an individual’s social baseline is determined by the quality and scope of their social network. Characteristically, the different attachment characteristics and personality result in different social baselines. The interactions between different social environments and individuals’ baseline would yield fluctuating social resources.  Gross and Proffitt (2013, p. 1) noted that increased social resources compared to baseline would result in similar changes in visual perception.  Murday et al. (2021, n.p.) highlighted the SBT as arguing the human brain’s assumption of the construction of social resources as bioenergetic resources for economizing behavior. The social baseline denotes the extent to which people could include others in their social network resources. A higher baseline indicates that an individual utilizes more social resources. A person with a high baseline is interdependent and spread the costs of the actions in the social environment. On the other hand, an individual with a low baseline is independent. Liddell and Bronte (2018, p. 1) highlighted the social baseline theory as denoting close relationships and the proximity one has to others as fostering emotional regulation. The result is the preservation of the crucial metabolically resources for other functions. Social exclusion has psychological and physiological impacts that derail the important human needs such as meaningful existence and sense of belonging. The load sharing aspects of the social baseline theory eliminates the possibility of the psychological stressors. Liddell and Bronte (2018, p. 13) noted that maintaining substantial social baseline is instrumental for optimized functioning.

The social baseline theory could help maneuver the challenging situations of the LGBT immigrants and ensure integration with the immediate society, compromising of both LGBT and non-LGBT community members. Bryant (2016, p. 2) are built to create a connection with each other through the evolution process resulting in the brains denoting its default state as being the recognition of the importance of social relationships. The theory also denotes that the heavy reliance of caregivers in the provision of care and nurturing during the early years results in the tendencies to rely on others for the sharing of the survival load.  The social baseline theory also relates to the social relationships people create with each other. Decety and Fotopoulou (2015, p. 4) highlighted that social support is a crucial aspect of social relationships. Different studies highlighted social support as instrumental in upholding physical and mental health with the absence of support resulting in harmful impacts.

Attachment Theory

The attachment theory examines the psychological and evolutional characteristics of human relationships. These aspects are instrumental in the determination of relationship formulation among LGBT immigrants and ability to integrate with the immediate society. Zelekha and Yaakobi (2020, p. 1) highlighted that the attachment theory aimed at exploring the attachment causation factors and the display on interpersonal attachment in an individual’s lifespan. Research highlighted adult attachment as forecasting the secure and insecure attachment an offspring could have with the parent.  The attachment theory is associated with two significant traditions; developmental psychology tradition and social psychology tradition. The development psychology tradition explores the attachment orientations among infants to determine an adult’s attachment orientation as influenced by infant’s relationship with their caregiver. Zelekha and Yaakobi (2020, p. 2) outlined the social psychology tradition as exploring attachment by examining adults’ attachment orientations as they relate to relationships beyond caregivers. Attachment orientations among adults are determined by various assessments including the avoidance of anxiety-related attachment. Avoidance denotes the level of mistrust in the true intentions of others.

Attachment behaviors are evidenced when individuals encounter situations emanating from illnesses or fear. Navigating foreign lands could be an extremely stressful situation for LGBT immigrants, considering the difficult situations necessitating their movement from their home countries. The fear of unknown is a probable cause of anxiety as these individuals are uncertain of the reception and integration into the society of the host country. In examining the bonds that infants could have with their caregivers, Ferenczi and Marshall (2013, p. 1) denoted the criteria defining an individual’s attachment in the course of their lifespan. These include;

  1. The need to maintain proximity
  2. Distress due to undesired separation
  3. Protection and safety provision during distress\
  4. Attached to emotional importance
  5. Persistence to a particular person

Various attachment models in literature complement the attachment theory. Ferenczi and Marshall (2013, p. 1) outlined the two-dimensional model of attachment and the latent models of self and others that form the theoretical discourse of internal working models of what individuals acquire over the years due to their childhood attachment. The interaction denoted the four attachment types that people develop. These include fearful, dismissive, preoccupied, and secure. Hinson et al. (2019, p. 206) defined the attachment theory through the emotional bond formed with other people. An individual’s attachment experience influence their thoughts and actions towards others. The three forms of attachments that infants form with their parents and bound to influence attachment over their livelihood include secure, resistant, and avoidant. Hinson et al. (2019, p. 206) outlined the study of attachment theory through three perspectives; social identity, bonding, and social structure. As a result, there is a bonding-based attachment, identity-based attachment, and social structure-based attachment. Hinson et al. (2019, p. 206) observed that the identity-based attachment is associated with the long-lived experiences and identity-based attachment relates to an object’s inclusion in an individual’s self-concept.  The social structure-based attachment relates to the physical structures that attach an individual to a particular place or object. The three forms of attachment are bound to influence the LGBT immigrants’ feeling of moving from their home countries to foreign regions and their interactions with the new people and places they meet.

The attachment theory also denotes the likelihood of the LGBT immigrants progressing with their lives and deriving meaning from it following their settlement in the foreign countries. Zelekha, Yaakobi and Avnimelech (2018, p. 502) outlined two orthogonal dimensions as denoting the individual differences through the attachment theory. These dimensions are anxiety and avoidance. Through the two dimensions, individuals are determined as having different attachment orientations.  The anxiety dimension expresses an individual’s concern on the possibility of a partner being unavailable or unhelpful when needed the most. On the other hand, the avoidance dimension denotes how an individual does not trust their partner’s goodwill, and deliberately gears towards behavioral independence and emotional distance.

Conceptual Framework

Independent variables                                                                    Dependent variable







LGBT Immigrants’ Social Integration     

The issue of LGBT immigrants’ social integration put into perspectives the several factors in play, and which could influence their exclusion of inclusion in the communities the settle in. LGBT immigrants are a minority group due to their sexual orientation, gender identity, and immigration status. Aydin and Ozeren (2020, p. 567) outlined the identification of sexual minority as a visible and invisible aspect of diversity management evidenced in developed countries’ private and voluntary sectors. LGBT have always been sidelined with many people not comprehending what they are all about. Instead, people thrive on the misconstrued conception to determine their interaction with LGBT, derailing their social integration. The attention towards LGBT as a minority group is growing at an alarming rate necessitating a similar approach accorded other racial and ethnic minority groups. LGBT immigrants’ social integration could be fostered by understanding the mechanisms associated with this group and devising feasible solutions.

The LGBT immigrants are similar to their heterosexual counterparts. However, the interactive aspect of their sexual orientation and gender identity uniquely influence their experiences. The same factors come to play in the LGBT immigrants’ inclusion in the United Kingdom (UK) by considering their immigration and sexual orientation status. In the UK, Tollemache, Shrewsbury and Llewellyn (2019, p. 2) observed that 2.4% of the population identifies as lesbians, gay, or bisexual, with an approximate 0.2-0.6% of the population identified as transgender of non-binary. The LGBT encounter several challenges that could influence their social integration and interaction with other groups in society. Tollemache, Shrewsbury and Llewellyn (2019, p. 2) outlined the prevalence of domestic violence among the LGBT compared to other groups in society. This violence could be due to intimate partner relationships or violence towards adolescents and children in the family setting. Hunt et al. (2019, p. 1) observed a survey of 108,100 LGBT in the UK to determine their experiences in their daily lives as published by the UK Government Equalities Office. In the preceding 12 months before the survey, 40% of transgender participants outlined at least a negative experience when accessing health care services. 13% of cisgender respondents cited at least one negative experience in seeking health care services due to their sexual orientation. Hunt et al. (2019, p. 1) highlighted the survey’s findings as resonating with a recent literature review on inequality among the LGBT groups in the UK. The literature denoted a significant dissatisfaction in the provision of health care services among the LGBT, compared to the heterosexual and cisgender. Tollemache, Shrewsbury and Llewellyn (2019, p. 2) noted that with UK’s aging population, the older LGBT were bound to encounter additional challenges compared to heterosexual and cisgender individuals. The authors cited a 2018 survey undertaken in UK that outlined LGBT people as likely to encounter discrimination and inappropriate curiosity concerning their sexuality and lack of awareness from healthcare professionals. This article sentiments related to the findings by Hunt et al. (2019, p. 1) on a grey literature survey of 3000 UK health and social care providers. The survey detailed 25% of patient or clients interacting with staff heard negative remarks on sexual orientation, with 205 making negative statements on gender identity.

Considering the discrimination towards the LGBT, it could be more complex for the LGBT immigrants. Fournier et al. (2017, p. 1) highlighted sexual orientation as significantly influencing the immigration experience. Sexuality is often infused in other immigrants’ life aspects such as family, relationships, economic opportunities, and satisfaction that the immigrants could not perceive as emanating from their sexuality and partially influencing their decision to migrate. The two potential sources of discrimination that characterize the lives of the LGBT immigrants could influence their perception of social integration. Fournier et al. (2017, p. 11) noted that the LGBT immigrants belong to two minority groups; sexual minorities and ethnocultural minorities. The possibility of experiencing freedom and sexual autonomy in the western countries motivate the LGBT migration. However, despite moving from a more homophobic country to a more open countries, a significant number of LGBT immigrants experience homophobia and heterosexual discrimination. Such situations could occur in various scenarios, among the new workplaces, religious institutions, and immigration agencies. Fournier et al. (2017, p. 11) highlighted that the movement and transition to another cultural group also encounter racial, xenophobic, and ethnic discrimination. The article highlighted the several discriminations highlighted in various articles as detailed by the 190 sexual and gender minority participants of the Latino ethnicity. These participants outlined treatment with less respect, inferior treatment, and reception of poor services.  Fournier et al. (2017, p. 12) articulated that gay immigrant men could experience sexual racism. LGBT immigrants could experience racism due to their skin color and individuals that do not align with the formulated stereotypes may be termed as lacking their true identity.

Racial fetish entails objectification and desired due to racial affiliation.  Fournier et al. (2017, p. 12) highlighted their lack of consideration of other aspects contributing to their being such as personality. The exclusion of LGBT immigrants in western countries have gone to extreme levels as denoted by the arising persecution cases. Governments have an instrumental role to play in ensuring the seamless integration of LGBT immigrants in communities they settle in. Giwa and Chaze (2018, p. 2) detail the crucial role played by settlement organizations in ensuring the LGBQT immigrants get accustomed to the Canadian culture. The authors noted that these groups often require help from settlement organizations to ensure successful transition. Some of the crucial areas of support include language training, employment, and housing. Additional support could also cover sexual orientation and gender identity by detailing means of acquiring healthcare services. Giwa and Chaze (2018, p.2) outlined that the universal immigration language absorbs the LGBTQ immigrants’ experiences with those of the heterosexual individuals, ignoring the unique situations encountered by the sexual minorities. As a result, the LGBT immigrants become an invisible group, with the available services failing to ensure the appropriate response to their numerous and interconnected identities.

LGBT immigrant’s social integration in the UK provide a unique scenario considering the government’s efforts and availability of organizations committed to the course. However, that does not necessarily mean that the LGBT immigrants will not face any forms of difficulties in integrating with the society. Aydin and Ozeren (2020, p. 568) highlighted UK’s ‘inclusionary’ case due to being an EU member state that had embraced the EU legislation earlier than others. The authors highlighted UK as having well-formulated organizations that are better positioned to mitigate LGBT discrimination against LGBT employees.

Social Factors Influencing LGBT Integration

Social integration is associated with health and behavioural outcomes impacting the wellbeing of community members. Social integration associate with an individual’s ability to participate in community services, some of which could be on voluntary-basis. Community attachment denote the type of support provided to others. Ziersch et al. (2020, p. 2) highlighted the social and economic benefits yielded by refugees and locals due to integration with the immediate society. The authors discussed the Ager and Strang’s influential framework that explores integration by factoring ten integration indicators through four domains. Ziersch et al. (2020, p. 2) noted that in the Means and Markers domain, education, housing, and employment are markers and means of ensuring successful integration. The Social Connection domain included bonds, bridges, and associations. The Facilitators domain comprised the language and cultural prowess, safety and stability. The Foundation included rights and citizenships. Social communication technologies have increasingly modified social integration for refugees and locals. Gray et al. (2013, p. 193) highlighted social media networks such as personal blogs provide information and social support while enabling social connection with others. Like other social network sites, Facebook has social and technical affordances fostering individual’s participation in activities that would maintain relationships while facilitating learning and exchanges between each other.

Several factors explore the social and cultural factors instrumental for the immigrants’ successful integration. Kushnirovich (2015, p. 11) highlighted economic integration and socio-cultural integration as the forms of integration encountered by immigrants, likely to later the experience of the LGBT immigrants. The analysis of the socio-cultural integration is through the Berry’s model of acculturation. This model highlighted integration as one of the acculturation strategies including; assimilation, integration, separation, and marginalization. Integration in the host country’s society is dependent on the retention of their original culture and adoption of the host country’s culture. Kushnirovich (2015, p.11) highlighted assimilation’s occurrence when the immigrants replace the cultural patterns of their original countries with those of their host countries. Exposure as measured by the number of residential years in the host countries and communication through the adoption of the language skills and social norms of the said countries are some of the social factors propelling the immigrants’ socio-cultural integration. However, putting in mind the LGBT immigrants, some factors due to their sexual orientation and gender identity may play out ultimately influencing their integration with the host society. LGBT could be secluded be fellow heterosexual groups with and without the immigration status in settings such as work environments and religious institutions. In addition to being sidelined for their racial and ethnic affiliations, the LGBT immigrants could be discriminated due to their sexual orientation and gender identity, derailing the acquisition of the social norms and language of the host countries, hence derailing their integration. Sapeha (2015, p. 894) stated that strong local connections could bypass the economic benefits associated with migration. As a result, immigrants with a higher involvement rate with the host communities record higher satisfaction and improved integration. Relatives and friends from the same ethno-cultural community in the host country improves integration and satisfaction with the immigration experience. However, the experience could be different for the LGBT immigrants who are discriminated and harassed even by individuals from the same culture and ethnic group due to sexual orientation and gender identity.

The universal aspects of the social media communication tools make them a crucial social factor influencing the social integration of LGBT immigrants. Bletscher (2020, p. 432) highlighted communication technology as an essential aspect in the U.S refugee integration. This technology ensure language adaptation and economic survival. Communication technologies also ensure immigrants are connected with individuals in their home countries, reducing social isolation and the resulting mental consequences. However, Bletscher (2020, p. 433) highlighted technology as a possible hindrance to immigrant resettlement and integration, especially if it is too expensive. In examining the integration of immigrants to host countries, Grenspan, Walk, and Handy (2018, p. 803) highlighted the importance of exploring government efforts and social processes that could foster integration of immigrants. Immigrant integration refers to the equal access to resources that ensure their equal participation in social, cultural, and economic activities. Grenspan, Walk, and Handy (2018, p. 804) outlined volunteering as one of the means to foster immigrant integration. Policy intervention to increase the private benefits associated with volunteering would help increase the immigrants’ volunteering rates due to perceived benefits.

The integration strategies applying to heterosexual immigrants could apply to LGBT immigrants while considering the unique circumstances elicited by their sexual orientation and gender identity. Qiu, Meng, and Wei (2016, p. 1385) stated that relocation elicits the possibility of impoverishment and challenges in social integration. State efforts in social integration could include formulation of favorable policy frameworks. The OHCR (2021, n.p) stated that the achievement of social inclusion requires the elimination of all laws criminalizing sexual orientation and gender identity and those interfering with the expression of personal identity. These efforts should also include the elimination of misconstrued notions on the harm attributed to diverse sexual orientation.

Economic Integration of LGBT Immigrants

Economic factors influencing LGBT immigration to foreign countries could equally influence their successful social integration in these communities. Economic integration factors refer to the aspects fostering the LGBT inclusion in the societies of their host countries. These economic factors could initially influence the LGBT immigrants due to their ethnic and racial characteristics, with the social orientation and gender identity further influencing the suitability of the said factors in influencing inclusion or exclusion. Kushnirovich (2015, p. 11) highlighted economic integration as associating with the earnings differences between the immigrants and natives with similar countries and the increased income over time. These characteristics could include age, educational level, and business acumen. The acculturation strategies also apply to the economic integration of the immigrants. Kushnirovich (2015, p.12) highlighted assimilation as the rate at which the earnings of the immigrants are similar or even exceed those of the natives. The authors used the term catching up of earnings to denote when immigrants and natives are similar in terms of earnings, resulting in the achievement of economic assimilation. Kushnirovich (2015, p. 12) observed that during the occurrence of the assimilation strategy, the immigrant entrepreneurs have similar entrepreneurial characteristic with the native entrepreneurs. In economic integration, business factors are influenced by several characters of the immigrant entrepreneurs, including the environmental, individual, and organizational factors. Economic capital, human, and social characteristics of the entrepreneurs are crucial aspects of business success for immigrants striving for economic integration through their entrepreneurial spirit. Kushnirovich (2015, p. 12) highlighted personal characteristics, education, education, and organizational characteristics are attributed to differentiated business outcomes for business people from different origins. Complex interactions could arise for LGBT immigrants who openly associate with their sexual orientation and gender identity.

Economic wellbeing is one of the essential factors to immigrants’ successful integration. Sapeha (2015, p. 893) highlighted the search for employment and better salaries as some of the factors influencing their movement from their countries of origin. Improved earnings and satisfactory employment are some of the economic factors instrumental to settlement and integration of immigrants into the host countries. The impact of he said factors could differ depending on the involved individual’s sexual orientation, race, and gender identity. LGBT immigrants could face harsh discrimination in their workplaces and accorded a relatively lower salary compared to the natives. The highlighted situations could play out despite the LGBT immigrants having similar characteristics with the natives, such as educational level and work experiences. Discriminated LGBT immigrants may be forced to move from one company o another in search of a favorable working environment, which could result in derailed settlement and integration with society. Sapeha (2015, p. 893) highlighted labor market performance for the skilled and business migrants as essential for the skilled and business migrants likely to have an economic motivation, Education is a crucial factor in economic integration, with the level of education influencing satisfaction and integration, Sapeha (2015, p. 894) highlighted higher education immigrants as less likely to be satisfied. Despite the association of higher education with satisfaction, individuals with a degree were less satisfied. The higher expectations could result in the perceived opportunities in the host countries, which might not be necessarily the case.

Influence of Gender Identification on Inclusion/Exclusion

Gender identity could significantly influence the inclusion and exclusion of immigrants in the UK. Millán-Franco et al. (2019, p. 120) highlighted the multi-dimensional and multi-level perspective of the social inclusion, where two complementary approaches could be differentiated. One approach examines the rights with the other denoting an individual’s involvement in the community. The sophisticated concept of social inclusion includes aspects such as social inclusion, cultural cohesion, and community values. Millán-Franco et al. (2019, p. 120) highlighted that despite the length of residence significantly influencing, there is no significant agreement on the aspects of cultural adaptation. The complexities of social inclusion could emanate from the different personal and social factors. The time of residence in a community is instrumental to social inclusion as an immigrant learns the different avenues to exploit in a bid to benefit from the available opportunities while developing more attachment and community pride. Millán-Franco et al. (2019, p. 120) denoted the positive association between immigrants’ social inclusion and the residency length in a particular country. Available studies denote social inclusion as a gradual and linear processes where immigrants are naturally integrated into the culture of the host country with time. The relationship the immigrants have with their immediate environment is a crucial aspect of the social inclusion process.  The social inclusion and exclusion applies to demographic characteristics of the immigrants.  The available literature does not adequately cover all the demographic groups in society. Oxman-Martinez and Choi (2014, p. 23) highlighted most research on children’s social inclusion and exclusion examined the adult-approach, with children indirectly receiving their parents’ social and economic resources. The children’s social inclusion and exclusion are significantly influenced by their families’ conditions, with regards to aspects such income, family structure, and unemployment.

Several studies have explored the children’s social exclusion and inclusion, and particularly relating to their views on exclusion in the host countries. The children involved in the study highlighted inclusion as dependent on the context of participation and involvement in community activities. Oxman-Martinez and Choi (2014, p.24) outlined children as denoting the social inclusion concept as relating to the attachment with people specially friends. Social inclusion among the youth group included acceptance, sense of belonging, and being understood. Schools play a central role as institutions in ensuring social inclusion among school-going children. Erwin and Daniel (2017, p. 91) highlighted the important role played by schools as community institutions. However, it is imperative to determine the effectiveness of community institutions to ensure adequate support and better service provision.  Fanning Haase and O’boyle (2011, p. 3) highlighted social inclusion as including efforts to ensure the marginalized and those living in poverty adequately participate in decisions that could impact their lives, enabling them to improve their living standards and well-being. On the other hand, social exclusion refers to the means by which some individuals are segregated from social participation due to their economic status, education, and immigration status. Fanning Haase and O’boyle (2011, p. 4) highlighted the existence of adequate literature denoting immigrants and their children as having social and cultural characteristics that increase the risk of social exclusion. Chan et al. (2016, p. 661) denoted the British people as likely to perceive immigration as a social problem. As a result, there is the high likelihood in minimal assistance accorded to the immigrants by the locals in the host countries to ensure social inclusion. Cavicchilo et al. (2020, p. 4) noted that family and individual characteristics influence the immigrant social inclusion in the school setting. These characteristics include socio-economic status, immigrant generation, and gender. Immigrant students were at more risk of social inclusion depending for belonging to a low socioeconomic status. In relation to gender aspects, Cavicchilo et al. (2020, p. 5) observed that immigrant girls had more social competence and encountered limited incidences of social exclusion compared to the male immigrants.

Differences between LGBT and non-LGBT Immigrant Integration

LGBT and non-LGBT immigrants encounter different experiences as they move to their host countries, which influence their integration with the host societies. Fuks et al. (2018, p. 297) highlighted immigrants as encountering numerous challenges upon their arrival to the host countries. These challenges include language barriers, recognition of their educational achievements, settlement, and seeking employment opportunities. LGBT immigrants face these challenges associated with their migration status in addition to heterosexism discrimination, and hate crimes due to their sexual orientation. Fuks et al. (2018, p. 297) outland the LGBT immigrants as finding themselves in a complex situation due to association with two minority groups. The complex situation can worsen due to the absence of social integration and community support. The support available for the non-LGBT immigrants may not be replicated to the LGBT immigrants. Fuks et al. (2018, p. 297) noted that religious affiliations, community, and family support strive to protect the health and wellbeing of immigrants while fostering their assimilation with host countries. However, the differentiated outlook of the highlighted systems to the LGBT immigrants denote the different integration for LGBT immigrants. Families, communities and religious institutions could be sources of discrimination due to the held sexual prejudice towards LGBT immigrants. Characteristically, the racism cultural, and language barriers in the mainstream LGBT communities restrain the integration of LGBT immigrants. Fuks et al. (2018, p. 297) recognized the scarcity of research exploring the challenges encountered by LGBT immigrants.

Complex interactions between the formed identity among the LGBT and cultures of the host countries influence integration. Fuks et al. (2018, p. 297) noted various aspects of LGBT immigrant experience, including sexual and gender identity development gender and sexual expression, and being much in the closet. These factors have a complex interaction with acculturation in the host country. The level of acculturation with the host country significantly impact health outcomes among the LGBT immigrants. Fuks et al. (2018, p. 298) noted that gays and bisexual immigrants with low acculturation levels portrayed higher levels of sexual behaviors. The lower acculturation levels were also associated with mental health seeking behaviors. An individual who is well integrated with the host country would easily seek mental health services regardless of the distinguishing personal characteristics. The authors stated that despite the identification of acculturation as a crucial factor in the LGBT immigrants’ integration, research on the same is absent. Challenges encountered by LGBT immigrants relative to their non-LGBT counterparts denotes the differentiated integration levels among immigrant groups. Fuks et al. (2018, p. 298) observed that Canada is one of the countries putting additional efforts on LGBT immigrants’ integration. Nevertheless, this group still face challenges in their ethnic communities, social services contexts, interpersonal relationships, and the LGBT communities. As a result, if integration remain a concern for LGBT immigrants in countries facilitating their integration, integration could be more complex for uninvolved countries.

LGBT immigrants and non-LGBT immigrants equally encounter challenges adapting to the new culture in the host country. Gray, Mendelsohn, and Omoto (2015, n.p.) stated that getting used to the new culture could be difficult for sexual minority immigrants who could also be going through stressors associated with their ethnic and sexual identity. Sexual minority groups encounter racism-related stress and anxiety at the intra-individual levels. These groups could also encounter chronic expectations of stereotypes and be overly vigilant of threats targeting their sexual identity. Gray, Mendelsohn, and Omoto (2015, n.p.) highlighted the LGBT Latino immigrants as encountering unique challenges attributed to their ethnic and sexual minority, and their immigrant status. While non-LGBT immigrants could be grappling with their immigrant status, the LGBT immigrants go through a double challenge that further impacts their social integration. Gray, Mendelsohn, and Omoto (2015, n.p.) outlined the LGBT immigrants as discouraged from accessing services used by their community members with the same immigration states and those used by the LGBT population.














Chapter 3: Methodology


This section explores the study’s research design, the study population, sample and sample selection, instrumentation, data collection, and data analysis. The discussion of the highlighted aspects would be in relation to the study’s research topic; how LGBT immigrants in the United Kingdom perceive their integration process.

Research Question

How do LGBT immigrants in the United Kingdom perceive their integration process?

Research Design

Research design refers to the process followed in undertaking research activities. This plan makes it easier to combine the various components of research in order to provide results that can be applied to the target population. By allowing data collection, measurement, and analysis, the design helps the attainment of the research objectives. This is a qualitative research that utilizes the exploratory research design. This design aimed at exploring a study phenomenon in a particular context. In this context, the phenomenon under study is the perception towards the LGBT immigrants in the United Kingdom. The research design is the core component of a research project, which articulates the plan to explore and narrow down the study proposal. The research approach also makes it easier to examine the research issues raised in previous chapters and make strategies for further research. Mukoka, S., Tshuma, E. and Tshababa (2021, p. 2) noted that research designs are influenced by research methods and the type of evidence needed to answer the research problem.

This study focuses on the exploratory research design This design has been chosen because the LGBT immigrants is an understudied area and this study would form the initial steps for future research efforts. This exploratory research design would also facilitate the examination of the research questions highlighted in the previous chapters and the plans of studying the research question. In a good research design, the study components have a good interaction that yields an efficient and successful functioning. Qualitative research is a type of scientific research that includes observation, interviews, and document analysis. Social researchers frequently employ qualitative research methods. This study relies on interviews as the instrument for the collection of data to answer the research question.


The researcher will use semi-structured questionnaires for data collection. The advantages associated with this data gathering tool makes it a preference. The questionnaire allows the attainment of research goals. In the semi-structured questionnaires, the researcher asks questions in an open-ended manner, rather than in a predetermined order. The questionnaires focus on features of the research study while also taking into account the demographic characteristics of the participants. The instrumentation focuses on the data collection mechanisms considered in this study. The research incorporates the semi-structured questionnaires as a tool for data collection, with the interviews enabling the use of the determined data collection instrument. Interviews shall also facilitate data collection activities. The use of interviews and semi-structured questionnaires enable the collection of qualitative and quantitative data to ensure the achievement of the research objectives.  Questionnaires are data collection instruments containing a series of questions aimed at gathering information related to the research problem from the research participants. Rowley (2014, p. 308) observed that since questionnaires are one of the most extensively used methods of data collection, many new researchers in business and management, as well as other fields of the social sciences, associate research with questionnaires. Given their widespread use, it is tempting to imagine that questionnaires are simple to develop and use. However, this is not the case. Designing a decent questionnaire that collects data that answers your research questions and draws a satisfactory response rate takes a lot of time and work. Pozzo et al. (2019, p. 5) emphasized questionnaires as a typical data collection tool. A questionnaire, according to the article, is a document containing a list of closed and open-ended questions that the respondent is supposed to complete and return to the given address or individual. The strengths of the questionnaires make it easier to conduct the research investigation objectively. Questionnaires have lower costs than other data gathering methods, according to Pozzo et al. (2019, 5). This program makes it possible to collect massive amounts of data in a short amount of time. Pozzo et al. (2019, 5) described the ease of quantifying, evaluating, and interpreting data acquired by the questionnaires. Relatively minimal human resources are required when using questionnaires for data collection.

The undertaking of the study and utilization of the research instruments would be sparingly considering the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has altered many elements of life, including research activity. The advent of the pandemic demanded the implementation of instructions aimed at limiting the virus’s spread. Dew (2020) emphasized policy implementation as a strategy of mitigating the pandemic’s effects. Restrictions imposed in reaction to the outbreak have hampered research. Containment techniques aimed at minimizing the spread of the virus, according to Sarkodie et al. (2021, p. 4), include social distancing and wearing protective clothing such as masks, travel bans, quarantine, travel bans, bans on public gatherings, and closure of public meeting locations. The essay stressed the importance of the containment measure.

Research processes were carried out with the goal of preventing the virus from spreading while also protecting the safety of the researchers and participants. The preferable technique for completing the study activities would be to collect data online. Improved internet connectivity makes it easier to administer online questionnaires. Ward et al. (2012) outlined the benefits of improved online data collection, particularly in leisure research.  However, scholars have underutilized the online data collection platform, which offers a diverse platform for data collection. Online questionnaire administration provides an opportunity to gain a broader perspective of the research topic. The COVID-19 epidemic hasn’t swayed this study’s decision to collect data using questionnaires and interviews. The research objectives, targeted respondents, and available methods of reaching the research participants are all important factors to consider while creating and administering semi-structured questionnaires. The questionnaires make it easier to collect both qualitative and quantitative data, and the portraiture-style interviews add to the qualitative data obtained. According to Taherdoost (2016), relying on questionnaires leads to some studies collecting structured and unstructured data in a consistent way. It will collect numerical data as a semi-structured questionnaire, with the respondents’ beliefs, opinions, and attitudes being determined further through interviews. According to Paradis et al. (2016), questions used to elicit qualitative data are open-ended and follow a free-text format. The article offered survey questions as a way to ensure that respondents’ opinions, attitudes, and beliefs are clearly understood. The advantages of questionnaires aid in the attainment of research goals. Questionnaires are a dependable and cost-effective method of gathering data, delivering both qualitative and quantitative information (Taherdoost 2016). This study advises using online questionnaires and interviews if field research is not viable owing to COVID-19 travel restrictions and dangers. There are numerous ways to gather and distribute research surveys using information and communication technology (ICT). Respondents would receive prepared online questions as an attachment. Aspects of paper surveys would be incorporated into online data collection questions. The questionnaire completion exercise would involve a total of 48 respondents. Electronic data gathering technologies allow the three characteristics of traditional approaches to be combined.

Study Population

The study population, also known as the target population, is the group of people who participate in a research project. Depending on the studied phenomenon, the study population varies. The bigger population that would be used to generalize the study results is also referred to as the study population. The study population was defined by Arias-Gómez et al. (2016) as the selecting subjects. The population in a research does not have to be made up entirely of human subjects; the greater population could include species, organizations, and things. Because it is difficult to characterize the study population, a representative sample must be recruited to investigate, and the findings must be extended to the target group. In this study, the target population is LGBT immigrants in the United Kingdom. The sample findings can only be applied to the target population. The target and accessible populations are distinct, and this distinction is reflected in how they are used in research projects. According to Asiamah et al. (2017), in a large study population, using a determined selection criteria in participant selection without specifying the target population may result in the omission of the right and credible participant group, as well as the researcher’s ability to obtain the right sample to facilitate the research objectives. The research operations, including data collection, require a comprehensive grasp of the target audience. The study objectives and adherence to the research strategy are used to define the target population. A researcher’s understanding of the study population, as well as identifying its aim and clear documentation, is a separate and huge job (Asiamah et al. 2017). The research population’s comprehension of the perception towards LGBT immigrants in the United Kingdom.


Studying the entire population could be a time-consuming and tough task to study the entire population. The study population could be unrealistic, and the researcher would be unable to get data from all of the participants. The number of LGBT immigrants in the United Kingdom is not known, making it impossible to investigate all of them and producing reliable data conclusions. A sample is required to investigate the study objectives and produce findings that can be extrapolated to the target population. A sample is required to investigate the study objectives and produce findings that can be extrapolated to the target population. A sample is a subset of the research population chosen to investigate the phenomenon under investigation. A sample, according to Etikan et al. (2016), is a subset of the population. The sample reflects the study’s desired features of the target population. The drawn sample in this study must represent the population in order for the results obtained by the sample to be generalized to the complete study’s population. The process of obtaining a sample from the target population is referred to as sampling. This procedure entails selecting a subset of the population from which statistical inferences can be drawn. According to Martnez-Mesa et al. (2016), sampling is the process of selecting people or sample units from a set of people or sample units. The sample frame is a subset of the study population that could be drawn from. The developed sample method will have an impact on the predicted sample size, therefore determining the sampling strategy is critical. Taherdoost (2016) emphasized the importance of sampling in producing population inferences, as it allows for generalization while also deciding the quality of the conclusions. When the findings from the sample can be applied to the target population, the results are said to be generalizable. Sample biases and systematic errors can be found in the sampling process. When the defined sample is not representative of the intended population, sampling bias arises. Large sample sizes are important in avoiding sample mistakes (Halmdienst and Radhuber 2018).

Purposive sampling was used in the research selection. Judgment sampling, also known as non-probability sampling, is a non-probability sampling approach in which researchers use their judgment to select study participants. The researcher’s comprehension of the study question and research requirements determines the applicability of this sampling approach. Purposive sampling is the ideal strategy for ensuring the gathering of qualitative data in this study, which is a qualitative literature review. Purposive sampling, according to Eze et al. (2018), allows the researcher to select a sample that is appropriate for a certain study. Purposive sampling, it is thought, will allow the researcher to create a representative sample. The belief is that through purposive sampling, the researcher can derive a representative sample by relying on their judgment. There are two sorts of sampling techniques: probability and non-probability approaches. The focus of this research is on non-probabilistic sampling. Non-probabilistic sampling, also known as non-random sampling, does not guarantee that every member of the target population will be included in the sample. In non-probabilistic sampling, the chance of choosing specific components of the population is null (Martinez-Mesa et al. 2016). This method involves the random selection of possible responders. Case study and qualitative research designs are related with non-probability samples. It is not necessary for the sample participants to be representative. The study would use a sample of 48 respondents.

Data Collection

Data collection is the systematic collection of information on the study variables in order to facilitate results and answering the research question. Data collection promotes the acquisition of necessary knowledge and articulates ideas on the research topic, regardless of the research entity or the research subject. The study’s findings’ credibility is determined by the level of overall caution used to maintain the study’s integrity. The data collecting approach for this project will be interviews, with the questionnaire serving as the data collection tool. In-depth interviews were chosen as a data source because the interview questions are unrestricted, allowing participants to offer extensive descriptions of their perspectives while receiving significant insight into their unique experience prior to being LGBQ immigrants in the United Kingdom. Qualitative interviews would be included in the data. Semi-structured interviews are a type of data collection method in which the researcher does not follow a pre-determined study plan. Semi-structured interviews, according to O’Keefe et al. (2016), make it easier to obtain qualitative and quantitative data. While structured interviews ask the same questions to all interviewers in a consistent manner, semi-structured interviews adhere to a certain topic guide. During the interview, the topic guide ensures that the key area of interest is satisfied (Mason 2000, as cited by O’Keefe et al. 2016). Interviews that are semi-structured. The use of semi-structured interviews would be critical in maintaining data credibility while preventing data duplication. To address issues such as a lack of resources and time, all interviews would take place on the same day. As a result, the study will use semi-structured interviews, in which each respondent will be asked a different set of interview questions. Individual questions in semi-structured surveys, on the other hand, would be geared at determining a comparable research component. According to Wilson et al. (2016), the order of questions in a semi-structured interview might vary depending on the nature of the interview. In cases where the interview does not achieve the intended objectives while asking certain questions, the additional questions bypassing the required order would be useful. As a result, the amount of interview questions asked by each respondent may vary depending on how well the research objectives were met. Because of the flexibility of semi-structured interviews compared to other interview methodologies, the study will be able to identify leadership elements that are relevant to individual respondents but would be difficult to discern in a traditional study.

The study would examine asking questions that might produce substantial information when developing interview questions. Individual respondents’ attitudes, beliefs, and opinions throughout the interview session would aid in drawing important conclusions about the research topic. To avoid prejudice during the interviews, it would be necessary to stay impartial to the issues raised by the participants. Interviews can be conducted face to face, over the phone, or online with or without video, according to Jain (2021). The interviews may need to be done online in order to comply with COVID-19 rules aimed at limiting the virus’s transmission. Participants in the study would be required to complete the semi-structured questionnaires sent to them, and accorded enough time between the submission of the questionnaires and the start of the interviews, as determined by the study. The study would draw a representative sample from LGBT immigrants drawn from social media platforms.

Data Analysis

Data analysis is a vital research procedure that involves analyzing and evaluating data to get a conclusion. Data analysis will extract meaning from the obtained data in order to replicate data findings and inform decision-making based on the information provided. Data analysis is the most difficult activity in the research process, according to Thorne (2000), as referenced by Nowell et al. (2017). In order to undertake data analysis, this study uses thematic analysis and descriptive statistics.  Thematic analysis is a qualitative data analysis technique. This method can be used with texts like transcribed interviews. Thematic analysis, according to Roberts et al. (2019), is a straightforward technique of conducting hermeneutic data analysis using non-numerical data. The pieces must be studied in order to understand the material as a whole, which cannot be understood if separated from the entire (Roberts et al. 2019). The interview and focus groups would aid in the development of themes and codes in the study. The various codes would be blended into themes based on their relationship to one another. The identified codes, their associated themes, and their frequency would be highlighted in a tabulation. Descriptive statistics would be used to analyze the collected data. This method would make it easier to gain meaning from data by presenting it in a meaningful way.

Data analysis using descriptive statistics would be done using frequencies, which would then be presented in a tabular format, with frequencies and percentages highlighted. Darawad et al. (2018) emphasized the importance of descriptive statistics for describing demographic characteristics and answering questions about participants’ views and perceived impediments. Descriptive statistics would allow for the examination of demographic data such as participant age, education level, and number of participants and frequency of responses. The importance of descriptive statistics, according to Qian et al. (2018), is based on its utility and ease of use in presenting basic information.

Quality Assessments

The purpose of the quality assessments is to see how the features of standards protect the aspects of the study design. The quality assessments also try to examine the overall strength of the research evidence while taking into account the research topic and the study design’s overall quality. The research procedures are designed to produce credible and trustworthy data and findings that may be applied to the target population. Maintaining quality assurance practices when conducting the study is a requirement of compliance, and it will help to ensure that the research findings are as reliable as feasible. Data quality assurance in this study refers to the tactics and mechanisms used to ensure data quality, dependability, and integrity throughout the research process. Measures taken during data collecting and procedures for data use could be included in quality assurance initiatives. Yamanaka et al. (2016) emphasized the importance of quality assurance in research projects by assuring the accuracy and justification of findings and conclusions. This study will employ a thorough and well-articulated data collection strategy. The absence of a plan during data collecting increases the risk of errors, which could jeopardize data quality. Monitoring and evaluation will be carried out in order to detect any errors or omissions that may jeopardize the data or findings.

Data Quality Control

Data quality control refers to a researcher’s efforts to ensure that the data collected is accurate and of high quality. The quality control measures for this study will guarantee that respondents are informed of the required thresholds while filling out the questionnaire. During the questionnaire completion exercises, all participants would be given instructions to follow. Examples of acceptable and undesirable responses would be included in the guidelines. The instructions would also emphasize the importance of using extreme caution when filling out the questionnaires. After reading the guidelines, the responders will be given a brief practice questionnaire to fill out to test their grasp of the emphasized ideas. These efforts are aimed at ensuring as much accurate data as feasible while decreasing the number of erroneous questionnaires that may be useless to the research objectives.

Validity and Reliability

The study’s reliability and validity are important factors in establishing the research’s quality. These ideas decide whether the procedures and methods used to measure something are appropriate. According to Rose and Johnson (2020), dependability refers to the robustness of a study’s findings in terms of the appropriateness of the research methodologies used and their applicability in qualitative research. This idea refers to the likelihood of a similar study having identical results if conducted by a different researcher using the same research procedures. When doing a study under the specified conditions, reliability is all about recreating the same results. Validity, on the other hand, relates to how well a study measure what it claims to assess. The respondents will be provided the freedom and sufficient time to complete and submit the questionnaires, ensuring the study’s validity and reliability. The researcher or others would not tamper with the research process in any way at any point during the study.

In qualitative research, rigor refers to the effectiveness of a study design and its suitability for answering the research question. According to Johnson et al. (2020), rigor is aimed at eliminating bias while improving the accuracy and trustworthiness of study findings. Increasing the study’s rigor necessitates taking into account factors like trustworthiness and member verification. In qualitative research, trustworthiness refers to the high quality, rigor, and relevance of the research process. In qualitative research, Daniel (2019) defined trustworthiness as the readers’ trust and confidence in the research findings. This study uses a systematic data analysis method called theme analysis to ensure reliability. The information gathered from the interviews was classified according to its relation to the determined themes in this study. Triangulation is a rigor criterion that is widely employed in qualitative research to determine the goal of discourse. The interview and recorded materials would be compared to ensure resemblance while removing the chance of errors or prejudice, which could jeopardize the acquired data’s accuracy. Member inspecting gears to ensure the accuracy of the information gathered. Participants in the study will have the option to review the interview transcripts to ensure their accuracy.

Ethical Considerations

This study will adhere to the highest ethical standards and research integrity, including respect for people, beneficence, and justice. The study’s ethical guidelines are geared at doing good rather than damage. Given that the study involves human responders, these standards will respect and maintain the dignity and rights of the participants. The following are some of the ethical guidelines that will be followed during the research process.

  1. The right to drop out of the study. Respondents have the ability to withdraw from the study whenever they see fit, and they will not be penalized for doing so. This would be communicated to the responders prior to the start of the study. Respondents should tell the researcher if they want to stop participating in the study. Respondents could tell the research team why they are withdrawing from the study so that changes can be made to improve the research process. However, providing these explanations is entirely optional. When making research inferences, the information provided by respondents who have withdrew from the study would be taken into account.
  2. Confidentiality. This principle applies when the researcher is aware of the respondents’ identities but makes an effort to keep them hidden from others who are not involved in the study. Some researchers and codes of ethics, according to Surmiak (2018), emphasize the importance of participant protection, particularly for disadvantaged groups. Other confidentiality attempts for this study include limiting access to data materials to the research team, in addition to concealing the identities of research participants. Access to the research station and research materials would be restricted to approved individuals. Electronic research materials that reveal the respondents’ identities would be extremely guarded. Electronic research materials that expose the respondents’ identities would be heavily encrypted, and paper documents would be kept in a locked cabinet accessible to the searcher.
  • Informed Consent. This approach entails informing research participants about their position in the study while emphasizing key aspects of the investigation. By providing this information, respondents will be able to decide whether or not to participate in the study. According to Vyas et al. (2020), the participant voluntarily provides their desire to participate in a study after exploring the trial aspects. After reading and consenting to the terms and conditions of the study process, respondents would be required to sign informed consents. Signed informed consent, according to Vyas et al. (2020), is proof that the respondents received the research information and agreed to participate in the process.
  1. Voluntary participation. Participation in the study is entirely optional, and respondents will not be forced to provide information for the study. Participants would not be pressured or promised monetary rewards in exchange for their participation in the study. All participants would get a document outlining the study’s guidelines and respondents’ roles. The document emphasizes the participants’ role in the study so that they may make an informed decision about whether or not to continue.
  2. Minimizing risk of harm. The goal of this research is to lower the chances of physical, emotional, and psychological injury. The study has no intention of harming the respondents in any manner, including losing their jobs, dignity, or suffering any other loss. The researcher would take every precaution to reduce potential dangers while ensuring the participants’ safety and well-being.

Assumptions of the study

The following are the study’s assumptions

  1. The researcher would be able to select the necessary sample of 48 respondents from the LGBT immigrant population
  2. The findings of the study could be applied to the target population, LGBT immigrants
  • In the questionnaires, the respondents would make accurate and truthful responses.
  1. The volunteers have no other motivation for participating in the study than to help the researchers achieve their goals.
  2. The research methodology and data gathering efforts used ensure that the research issue is fully explored and that the research objectives are met.

Possible Study Limitations

  1. A dropout rate among participants. Participants may drop out of the study after a few days.
  2. A sample that isn’t representative. It’s possible that the sample size isn’t large enough to draw conclusions that can be applied to the entire population.
  3. Limited resources. The study may require monetary resources to conduct interviews and produce study-related conclusions.
  4. Participants could be hesitant to reveal all their experiences.













Chapter Four: Results and Findings


This section provides the research findings following the information and materials obtained through data collection exercise. The study’s findings would aid in reaching an informed conclusion on how LGBT immigrants in the United Kingdom perceive their integration process. This discussion will address the themes that emerged in the study and their association with the presented empirical and theoretical data.

Response Rate

A total of 48 people were surveyed for the study. As shown below 35 people completed and returned the questionnaire, resulting in a 72 percent response rate.

Response Frequency Percentage (%)
Responses 35 72
No response 12 28
TOTALS 48 100

Source: (Author 2021)

Demographic Information

The participants gave different responses on their perception of their integration in the United Kingdom. However, there was a similarity in the responses provided by the respondents on the basis of gender and racial affiliation. The 35 respondents that dully completed and returned their questionnaires highlighted incidences of discrimination and harassment due to their racial and sexual orientation, and gender identity. Out of the 35 active participants, 21 were gays, 9 were lesbians, and 5 were bisexual. Some of the respondents in the earlier sample considered themselves transgender. However, there were unwilling to continue with the study as they were unwilling to share some information about their experiences. Below is a tabulation of the demographic characteristics of the participants.

Sexual Orientation Frequency
Gays 21
Lesbians 9
Bisexual 5


Level of Education

Education levels significantly influenced the perception of the integration process for the LGBT immigrants in the UK. Below is a tabulation of the participants’ level of education.

Level of education Frequency
High School 16
Diploma 11
Bachelor’s Degree 7
Masters 1


Thematic Analysis

      I.          Social Factors

The four factors that significantly influenced the participants’ perception of the integration process included education, employment, socioeconomic status, and language proficiency. The participants with the higher education levels were able to secure employment positions, and could easily interact with their employees both at work and in social settings. However, most participants noted that they easily integrated with the non-LGBT natives without sharing their social orientation. One of the respondents 3 stated that,

My co-workers were unwilling to interact with me after learning that I was a member of the LGBT community. I regretted ever speaking about by sexual orientation. Despite enjoying the freedom of being whom I am and able to associate with other LGBT members in the organization, it marked the onset of being sidelined in most arrangements.

All the respondents noted that their close friends and families knew their sexual orientation, despite some not supporting them. The respondents had both immigrant and native’s friends and LGBT and non-LGBT friends. However, one common aspect among the respondents was that most native friends were members of the LGBT community. All respondents were conversant with the English language. Language proficiency significantly influenced their integration with the society.

    II.          Economic Factors

Wage rates and the standard of living are primary factors that influenced the integration in the United Kingdom. The financial prospects that came with the two factors made it easy for some of the participants to socialize and participate in events organized by their peers. Respondent 7 noted that having lost his job after the COVID-19 pandemic, it was so difficult for him to interact with his peers. He was unable to attend social events.

Most of my LGBT friends preferred not to associate with me after losing my job. The situation was much difficult at home with my African parents associated my predicaments with my sexual orientation.

LGBT immigrants who had good finances and had better living arrangements easily integrated with the natives in the host country. The social and voluntary events they participated in made it easy to make more friends without being bound by sexual orientation.

 III.          Integration Differences

The respondents agreed that their sexual orientation significantly influenced their social integration. Belonging to racial and ethnic minority groups was a case for discrimination in job opportunities, promotion, and delivery of health care services. However, the experience was worse for the respondents that were open about their sexual orientation. The responses denoted different responses where some participants gained favor for being a member of the LGBT with another discriminated for the same. According to respondent 1, she got a job promotion and salary increment after her boss discovered she was a lesbian. The respondent added that;

I did not expect my sexual orientation to warrant me a job promotion. I have been discriminated in the best and I now can see that our country is headed to the right direction. However, I believe that I was given the promotion with the hope that I would reciprocate the favor in the future.

Some respondents had an opposite experience, with their status resulting in harassment and discrimination. Respondent 9 noted the following

Many are the cases that I have encountered discrimination for being gay and openly dressing to the part. I remember being denied health care services on the grounds that there was no gay specialist in the facility. I only needed a COVID-test and my non-LGBT friend got it despite being black like me.

22 respondents highlighted that they never associated with any religious institutions as the churches attended did not accommodate them for being vocal about their sexuality.


The study findings denoted that integration in society is more dependent on sexual orientation than racial affiliation. While participants encountered discrimination and harassment due to racial and ethnic affiliation, cases were extreme when their sexuality were known by the public. The study aimed to determine the LGBT immigrants’ perception of the integration experience in the United Kingdom. LGBT immigrants were more integrated if they had a better job, were not open about their sexuality, had employment, and a favorable socioeconomic status.








Appendix A: Ethics Form



(Taught Student)





The completion of this form should not be seen as an end in itself but as a vehicle to ensure that you have gone through a process of considering the ethical implications of your research in detail and that you are able to communicate this clearly.

PLEASE CHECK THE RELEVANT BOX (NB: double click on the box and select ‘checked’)


UNDERGRADUATE          MA/ MSc  ✓         OTHER   (please specify)




Student Name: Joe Mwangi Ngumo
Student Number: NGU17436596
Programme of Study & Dept: MA Human Rights & International Relations
I confirm that this submission accords with the University Code of Conduct / BCS / Other Body/ and that all information supplied on this form is correct
Applicant’s Signature:  



25th August, 2021

 Please tick the box to confirm that you have approved the application as ethically sound, and the participant-facing documentation as appropriate

 Please tick the box to confirm that student has contacted the Finance Office if travelling overseas

 Please tick the box to confirm that the appropriate DBS (Disclosure and Barring Service) check via Admissions has been applied for (if appropriate – please contact  if you are unsure whether this is required).    



Print Name:  






Title of project:  

How do LGBT immigrants in the United Kingdom perceive their integration process?


Proposed start date & duration:  

January to August


Purpose of the proposed investigation:

This section should include the material which outlines the rationale for the project (i.e., why this study needs to be done). This should be done in a way that is both accessible and scholarly (i.e., have proper cited sources).


The purpose of the study is to determine how the LGBT immigrants perceive their integration. The LGBT immigrants is an understudied area as denoted by the scarcity of literature on the same. The study would utilize peer-reviewed materials published within the last 10 years.

Outline of the project:

This section should include the details of methodology (i.e., what will be done, how, where and how long). Please also confirm:

  • that if the study requires lab and/or technician support, the allocation of resources has been/will have to be agreed by the Subject Head via your supervisor
  • whether any University Ethics Approval is already in place for the whole (or part) of this study (please discuss with supervisor)
The study would use a qualitative research method and incorporate an exploratory research design. The questionnaires would facilitate the collection of non-numerical data. The study uses purposive sampling, a non-probabilistic sampling method. This sampling method relies on the researcher’s judgment to determine an individual’s suitability for inclusion in the study sample.





Ethical issues raised by the project and how these will be addressed:

       Points that should be considered include:

  • Participants and consent. Please include consent form (and information sheet if applicable)
  • Confidentiality and anonymity
  • Whether any special/ vulnerable populations are involved (including under 18s)
  • Right to withdraw
  • Deception
  • Permissions from organisations involved
  • Health & Safety issues, including any risks to participants and/ or researcher,  sole-working and working overseas (Please discuss this with your supervisor, who should  contact the Head of Health & Safety if there are any queries regarding this)
  • Please note that if your project includes overseas travel (including travel to your home country if that is overseas) then you should advise the Finance Office at least eight weeks prior to the departure date.



Participants would be given a consent form where they are to dully fill before participating in the study. The identity of the participants would be upheld and would be accorded numerical identities such as respondent 1, 2, and 3.  The respondents would be informed of the right to withdraw from the study whenever they deemed fit without being accorded any punitive measures. Data provided by the respondents who have left would be discarded and not considered during the study. The study does not involve any vulnerable individuals and participants would be aged 18 years and above.





  • You should download the attached Participant Consent Form template (Appendix B) and amend as necessary; you should also attach any other information to be given to participants
  • You should consider carefully what information you provide to participants (e.g., scope of study, number of participants, duration of study, risks/benefits of the project). It is recommended that the participant has two copies of the consent form so they can retain one for information.
  • If images or anything else which might allow the identification of participants is to be publicly accessible (e.g., on the web), a separate section regarding this should be included on the participant consent form
Give details of the method of recruitment, and potential benefits or incentives to participants if any (include any financial benefits where appropriate).

(NB: Please remember that written permission – or in some cases ethics approval – will have to be sought from  any organisations where recruitment is carried out or posters placed (e.g., if you recruit in GP’s surgeries you will require NHS approval)

Participants would be recruited through Facebook. This social media platform is easily accessible and it would be easy to locate LGBT immigrants due to their membership in various Facebook groups. Participants would be informed about the study and what would be required of them. Potential risks would also be highlighted to facilitate informed decision making. No financial incentives would be given to the study participants.

Will you be using participants who are aged 18 or under?

YES     NO ✓


Will you be targeting participants who might be considered to be vulnerable (please give details if not addressed elsewhere on this form)?

YES     NO ✓


If you have answered Yes, please refer to the Ethics Guidelines and highlight the particular issues raised by working with these participants and how these issues have been addressed.







If you have answered yes to either of the above you will need to obtain DBS clearance through Roehampton. Please contact Student Admissions ( regarding this.




Data for Undergraduate, MA and MSc projects should be stored according to programme requirements (e.g., 18 months). However, if work is to be published, data should be stored for 10 years.


Data should be collected and processed in accordance with the Data Protection Act 1998 and with the University’s Data Protection Policy.

Describe how and where the following data will be stored and how they will be kept secure:
Raw and processed data

Data would be store electronically under encryption

Documents containing personal details of any participants

Documents containing participants’ data would be stored in enclosed cabinets with the key only maintained by the researcher. Only individuals directly associated with the research would access the documents. These documents would be shredded after the completion of the study.


Project Details  
Have you completed your personal details? Yes ✓
Have you outlined the project and ethical issues? Yes ✓

Working with Participants

Have you completed details of how you intend to recruit participants and whether they will receive any reimbursement? Yes ✓
If you are working with under 18s or participants who might be considered to be vulnerable, have you addressed the particular ethical issues involved in working with these participants? Yes ✓ NA ✓
Have you amended the Participant Consent Form (Template) for your project? Yes ✓
Have you attached any other information to your form that may be needed for participants? (e.g., Debriefing Letter, Information Sheet) Yes ✓
Have you attached any other participant-facing materials to your form? (e.g., recruitment posters, questionnaire, interview questions) Yes

Health and Safety

Have you considered the risks associated with the project and discussed these with your supervisor?  (Your supervisor should contact the Head of Health & Safety if there are any queries regarding this) Yes ✓
If your project is taking place outside the UK, have you noted on the form where the project will take place, considered risks in relation to this, and also contacted Finance to advise them of the project? (An Overseas Risk Assessment form  may need to be completed). Please provide translations of documents if required Yes ✓  NA
If your project involves interviews in a participant’s home or lone-working, have you considered the risks and control measures? (e.g., advising a colleague/supervisor of the timings of visits, ringing before/after interview and developing a contingency plan if contact is not made)? Yes
Does your project involve clinical trials, abnormal levels of risk, working with animals or human tissue samples? If so, please provide details Yes  No
If working off site, have you confirmed that local guidelines will be followed? Yes  NA
Publication of Results  
Are your findings to be published? Yes


Have you described how you will ensure the anonymity of participants, or asked them for explicit consent in your consent form to identify them in your research? Yes

Storage of Data

Have you described how and where your data will be stored at the University and how this will be kept secure? Yes

External Guidelines

Have you noted any relevant subject-specific ethics guidelines (e.g., BCS) and considered how these will inform your research? Yes
Have you considered whether you have to apply for ethical approval through another organisation (e.g., NHS)? (Section 4) Yes



Applicant’s Confirmation

Have you added an electronic signature or typed your name and date in the applicant’s signature box? Yes
Has your supervisor checked your application form and added an electronic signature or typed their name and date on the form? Yes

Have you proof-read your application form and documents?





      Application approved


      Application approved subject to conditions


      Applicant to make substantial revisions and resubmit the application


      Application to be referred to the Ethics Committee



Details of Decision-Making Panel:









Signature & Position:  


Please use an electronic signature or type your name

Print Name:  







Appendix B: Participant Consent Form (Template)


Title of Research Project: How do LGBT immigrants in the United Kingdom perceive their integration process?

Brief Description of Research Project, and What Participation Involves:

This study examines the integration of LGBT in the United Kingdom. The study would focus on the factors influencing the integration processes and the integration differences between LGBT immigrants and non-LGBT immigrants.

Investigator Contact Details:



University Address





Consent Statement:

I agree to take part in this research, and am aware that I am free to withdraw at any point without giving a reason, although if I do so I understand that my data might still be used in a collated form. I understand that the information I provide will be treated in confidence by the investigator and that my identity will be protected in the publication of any findings, and that data will be collected and processed in accordance with the Data Protection Act 1998 and with the University’s Data Protection Policy.


Name ………………………………….


Signature ………………………………


Date ……………………………………


Please note: if you have a concern about any aspect of your participation or any other queries, please raise this with the investigator (or if the researcher is a student, you can also contact the Supervisor.) However, if you would like to contact an independent party, please contact the Head of Department.

Supervisor Contact Details:                                     Head of Department Contact Details:


Name                                                              Dr Finola Farrant

University Address                                         Dept of Social Sciences,

Hirst Building, University of Roehampton

Email                                                              Email:





Akin, D. (2018). Discursive construction of genuine LGBT refugees. Lambda Nordica, 23(3-4), 21-46.

Aydin, E., & Ozeren, E. (2020). Inclusion and exclusion of sexual minorities at organisations: Evidence from LGBT NGOs in turkey and the UK. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 33(3), 567-578.

Bennett, C., & Thomas, F. (2013). Seeking asylum in the UK: Lesbian perspectives. Forced Migration Review, (42), 25-28

Bieksa, L. (2011). The Refugee Qualification Problems in LGBT Asylum Cases. Jurisprudencija, 18(4)

Bletscher, C. G. (2020). Communication technology and social integration: Access and use of communication technologies among Floridian resettled refugees. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 21(2), 431-451.

Bryant, R. A. (2016). Social attachments and traumatic stress. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 7.

Cavicchiolo, E., Manganelli, S., Bianchi, D., Biasi, V., Lucidi, F., Girelli, L, Cozzolino, M. & Alivernini, F. (2020). Social inclusion of immigrant children at school: the impact of group, family and individual characteristics, and the role of proficiency in the national language. International Journal of Inclusive Education.

Chan, K., Huxley, P. J., Chiu, M. Y., Evans, S., & Ma, Y. (2016). Social inclusion and health conditions among Chinese immigrants in Hong Kong and the United Kingdom: An exploratory study. Social Indicators Research, 126(2), 657-672.

Cheung, C. (2013). Morale in relation to caring and social exclusion in society. Social Indicators Research, 113(1), 471-490.

Decety, J and Fotopoulou, A. (2015). Why empathy has a beneficial impact on others in medicine: Unifying theories. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience.

Dewi, A., Nurmandi, A., Rochmawati, E., Purnomo, E. P., Rizqi, M. D., Azzahra, A., . . . Dewi, D. T. K. (2020). Global policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic: Proportionate adaptation and policy experimentation: A study of country policy response variation to the COVID-19 pandemic. Health Promotion Perspectives, 10(4), 359-365.

Drinkwater, S. and Robinson, C. (2013). Welfare participation by immigrants in the UK. International Journal of Manpower, 34(2), 100-112.

Erwin, D. and Daniel, Y. (2017). The role of schools in shaping the settlement experiences of newcomer immigrant and refugee youth. International Journal of Child, Youth & Family Studies, 8(2), 90-109.

Fanning, B., Haase, T., & O’boyle, N. (2011). Well-being, cultural capital and social inclusion: Immigrants in the republic of Ireland. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 12(1), 1-24.

Ferenczi, N. and Marshall, T. C. (2013). Exploring attachment to the “Homeland” and its association with heritage culture identification. PLoS One, 8(1)

Fournier, C., Brabant, L., Dupéré, S. & Chamberland, L. (2017). Lesbian and Gay Immigrants’ Post-Migration Experiences: An Integrative Literature Review. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies.

Fuks, N., Smith, N., Peláez, S., Stefano, J. & Brown, T. (2018). Acculturation Experiences among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Immigrants in Canada. The Counselling Psychologist, 46(3), 296-332

Giwa, S. and Chaze, F. (2018). Positive enough? A content analysis of settlement service organizations’ inclusivity of LGBTQ immigrants. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 1-24

Gray, A. and McDowall, A. (2013). LG BT refugee protection in the UK: From discretion to belief? Forced Migration Review, (42), 22-25

Gray, N., Mendelsohn, D., and Omoto, A. (2015). Community Connectedness, Challenges, and Resilience among Gay Latino Immigrants.

Gray, R., Vitak, J., Easton, E. & Ellison, N. (2013). Examining social adjustment to college in the age of social media: Factors influencing successful transitions and persistence. Computers & Education, 193-207

Greenspan, I., Walk, M., & Handy, F. (2018). Immigrant integration through volunteering: The importance of contextual factors. Journal of Social Policy, 47(4), 803-825.

Gross, E. B. and Proffitt, D. (2013). The economy of social resources and its influence on spatial perceptions. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.

Hinson, R., Boateng, H., Renner, A. and  John Paul, B. K. (2019). Antecedents and consequences of customer engagement on Facebook: An attachment theory perspective. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 13(2), 204-226.

Hunt, R., Bates, C., Walker, S., Grierson, J., Redsell, S., & Meads, C. (2019). A systematic review of UK educational and training materials aimed at health and social care staff about providing appropriate services for LGBT+ people. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(24)

Jakuleviciene, L., Bieksa, L., & Samuchovaite, E. (2012). Procedural Problems in LGBT Asylum Cases. Jurisprudencija, 19(1)

Kim, S. (2021). Conceptualizing “Family” and the role of “Chosen family” within the LGBTQ+ refugee community: A text network graph analysis. Healthcare, 9(4), 369.

Kourachanis, N. (2019). From camps to social integration? Social housing interventions for asylum seekers in Greece. The International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 39(3), 221-234.

Kushnirovich, N. (2015). Economic integration of immigrant entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 3(3), 9-27.

Liddell, B. J. and ⨯ Bronte, S. C. (2018). Attachment buffers the physiological impact of social exclusion. PLoS One, 13(9)

Madakam, S. and Tripathi, S. (2021). Social media/networking: Applications, technologies, theories. Journal of Information Systems and Technology Management: JISTEM, 18, 1-19.

Masullo, G. (2015). Migrant sexualities: “non-normative” sexual orientation between country of origin and destination. Italian Sociological Review, 5(3), 383-398

Millán-Franco, M. and Gómez-Jacinto, L., Hombrados-Mendieta, I., González-Castro, F., & García-Cid, A. (2019). The effect of length of residence and geographical origin on the social inclusion of immigrants. Intervención Psicosocial, 28(3), 119-130.

Mukoka, S., Tshuma, E. and Tshababa, M. (2021). Use of research questions and hypothesis on mixed methods approach: an analysis with special reference to research designs. International Journal of Information, Business and Management, 13(3), 1-5

Murday, V., Campos-Moinier Kévin, Osiurak François and Lionel, B. (2021). Extraversion level predicts perceived benefits from social resources and tool use. Scientific Reports (Nature Publisher Group), 11(1)

Nicol, N., Gates-Gasse, E. and Mule, N. (2014). Envisioning global LGBT human rights: Strategic alliances to advance knowledge and social change. Scholarly and Research Communication, 5(3).

OHCR (2021). Effective inclusion of LGBT persons.

Oxman-Martinez, J. and Choi, Y. R. (2014). Newcomer children: Experiences of inclusion and exclusion, and their outcomes. Social Inclusion, 2(4)

Qiu, Y., Meng, G., & Wei, Y. (2016). Factors influencing immigrants’ satisfaction in danjiangkou reservoir based on logistic regression model. Water Policy, 18(6), 1384-1398.

Roger, E. H., Torsheim, T. and Thuen, F. (2014). Loneliness, social integration and consumption of sugar-containing beverages: Testing the social baseline theory. PLoS One, 9(8)

Rowley, J. (2014). Designing and using research questionnaires: MRN. Management Research Review, 37(3), 308-330.

Sánchez-Franco, M. J., Buitrago-Esquinas, E. and Yñiguez-Ovando, R. (2015). What drives social integration in the domain of social network sites?: Examining the influences of relationship quality and stable and dynamic individual differences. Online Information Review, 39(1), 5-25.

Sapeha, H. (2015). Explaining variations in immigrants’ satisfaction with their settlement experience. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 16(4), 891-910.

Simionescu, M. (2017). The impact of immigrants on the UK economy. Knowledge Horizons.Economics, 9(2), 31-46

Simionescu, M., Bilan, Y., Smrcka, L. and Vincúrová, Z. (2017). The effects of European economic integration and the impact of Brexit on the UK immigrants from the CEE countries. E+M Ekonomie a Management, 20(1), 29-47

Tan, J. and Wang, Y. (2019). Social integration, social support, and all-cause, cardiovascular disease and cause-specific mortality: A prospective cohort study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(9)

Tinè, P. (2017). Cultural interaction and integration in the context of immigration: The case study of the Nepali-speaking Bhutanese in Adelaide 1. Journal of Identity and Migration Studies, 11(2), 23-33,154

Tollemache, N., Shrewsbury, D., & Llewellyn, C. (2021). Que(e) rying undergraduate medical curricula: A cross-sectional online survey of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer content inclusion in UK undergraduate medical education. BMC Medical Education, 21, 1-12.

Vitikainen, A. (2020). LGBT rights and refugees: A case for prioritizing LGBT status in refugee admissions. Ethics & Global Politics, 13(1)

Zelekha, Y. and Yaakobi, E. (2020). Intergenerational attachment orientations: Gender differences and environmental contribution. PLoS One, 15(7)

Zelekha, Y., Yaakobi, E and Avnimelech, G. (2018). Attachment orientations and entrepreneurship. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 28(3), 495-522.

Ziersch, A., Miller, E., Baak, M., & Mwanri, L. (2020). Integration and social determinants of health and wellbeing for people from refugee backgrounds resettled in a rural town in South Australia: A qualitative study. BMC Public Health, 20, 1-16.





No matter what kind of paper writing service you need, we’ll get it written. Place Your Order Now!
× How can I help you?