Maritime Port Security Antiterrorism Port Procedures

abstract (150-250 words, no quotes or paraphrases. This is your “elevator speech” of the research)
Introduction (Research Question and Hypothesis)
Literature Review (Note this is not an annotated bibliography but a Literature Review)
Methodology – don’t simply state qualitative methodology.
Analysis & Findings
Conclusion and Recommendations
Reference list

bstract (150-250 words, no quotes or paraphrases. This is your “elevator speech” of the research)
Introduction (Research Question and Hypothesis)
Literature Review (Note this is not an annotated bibliography but a Literature Review)
Methodology – don’t simply state qualitative methodology.
Analysis & Findings
Conclusion and Recommendations
Reference list


This study seeks to assess and evaluate the maritime port security systems applicable to antiterrorism. Anchored on three variables:  fighting antiterrorism, keeping the international waters safe, and ensuring the safety of seafarer and cargo. This study will explore a formative and detailed review of previous studies to form a comprehensive literature review to deduce the secondary data.  The study will employ a qualitative and quantitative approach. The study will use desktop literature and secondary data to analyze and inform the literature review. Results and findings will be tabulated and interpreted in coherence with the literature review. This study will benefit the ports’ authority, national defense, and maritime operations, and international institutions off the coast.

Maritime Port Security Antiterrorism Port Procedures


The Maritime Industry is a high risk-oriented industry with a reputation for coping with risks. The sector requires a high-security level to keep seafarers and cargo at sea safe and protect international affairs. With the advancements in technology, maritime commerce has drastically improved and opened up trade and international relations across borders (Martinez,  2017). This has become the cornerstone of the modern-day freely flowing international business. Nowadays, nations have become more linked than ever.  However, there is grappling terror and fear due to the rising terrorism and organized crime movements that threaten security at sea.

Although there was paucity in the maritime regulations governing terrorism in the recent past, there has been an influx of rules to safeguard seafarers and cargo from terrorist attacks due to the multiplicity of maritime crimes (Coultrap, Rector, Lopez, Ernst, (2010). These laws revolve around protecting and controlling maritime services in the ocean. The laws have outlined and shaped the procedures that guide and oversee eradicating terror activity in the region. While most of the statutes revolve around manning and protecting the waters, most of the rules are anchored on laying a firm foundation for counter-terrorism (Dean, 2019). The maritime sector is fully engaged in conducting numerous functions to ensure that the ports are safe and secure to facilitate trade relations, boost the workforce, and maintain good diplomatic relationships with their international corporates (Guard, 2006). Although most countries fail to fulfill their global responsibilities, countries with shareable or evidenced waterbodies are liable to the law. Maritime security involves a complex web of international corporate registration practices that comprises a fleet of intermediaries vessels registered under different countries. Globally implementation of maritime regulation is still a growing concern. In the recent past, the sector has become vulnerable to attack due to the voluminous trade and transport activities at sea. Needless, this system is still a significant economic driver for a diverse market and is still a significant contributor to world trade and prosperity.

Although there are no significant plans to close down the maritime industry, there are complex and massive efforts to heighten security measures that address the system’s vulnerabilities and weaknesses. The maritime sector is the backbone of transport and trade regulations in today’s world.  Yet, there are many reasons why the maritime industry poses immense challenges due to terrorist groups’ invasion. However, in its complex open nature, the maritime sector poses several additional challenges that may drastically affect the entire maritime industry. The maritime industry is a complex web of intermediary vessels that transport goods that service nearly at 4000ports across the world. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) projected that sea trade accounts for approximately 80% of world trade by volume (Barnes & Oloruntoba, 2005). Therefore sea-going vessels can use as a preying ground by terrorists. They can also be used as transport guns and other avenues that facilitate the penetration and expansion of the terrorist organization.  The vessels can be used as a means of trade to raise capital that is injected into various terrorist sects to allow their growth and development (Frittelli, 2008). The primary risk factors related to shipping, cargo, vessels, people, and financing are significant contributors to the global economic paradigms. These factors are also linked to a broader and more complex financial system that plays a central role in the World Trade and rigid economic costs that heightened security regulations. The open and frictionless trade system exposes the maritime sector to external attacks fueled by terrorist risk factors (Haveman, Shatz, & Vilchis, 2005). Vessels cruising through huge mass waterbodies can be used as weapons of mass destruction that can potentially disrupt nations. However, it is plausible to introduce stable, universally acceptable waterways that allow for seafarers and cargo movement through internationally governed canals. The commonality in compliance with the conventions will be witnessed with countries establishing relevant institutions to facilitate programs and projects that enable proper working conditions with international maritime laws. Therefore, it is of paramount importance for maritime agencies to collaboratively work with governments to formulate broad-based security policies and procedures.

Research Questions

This study seeks to assess the security antiterrorism procedures applicable to maritime ports.

The following specific objectives will guide this study:

What are the maritime port antiterrorism procedures?

Who is responsible for the formulation and implementation of port procedures?

What are the impacts of antiterrorism procedures to the world trade involving maritime transport?

Literature Review

Over the last decade, nations worldwide are actively involved in the war against antiterrorism on land, water, and air transport.  The Maritime authority is at the forefront of the fight against global tourism (Guard, 2006). Since the issuance of the U.S Coast Guard Maritime Strategy for Homeland Security 2002, there has been a paradigm shift in the structural and physical disposition of the maritime sector. There have been rapid and significant changes in the coast guard maritime domain. The maritime industry has adopted a new strategy to combat the unexpected rise of the maritime legal breach, which has led to constrained operations, inefficiency at the servicing ports, and significant global disruptions (United States. Coast Guard. 2002). Before the terror attack of 2011, little or minimal research had been conducted on the maritime port regulations. However, the tragedy’s aftermath was marked with concise efforts to lay down a firm foundation to counter the attacks. These led to the need to draw out rules and regulations to oversee the international maritime transport to make the industry safe and secure, hence becoming more ingrained in the global maritime community (Mat Salleh, 2006). In the recent past, a plethora of incidences has elected the international community’s concerted efforts. The community has identified a comprehensive and detailed framework to dictate seafarers’ rights and jurisdictions at sea.  The community is geared to ensure no haven or hiding place for terrorists or perpetrators at sea. This has been achieved by implementing conventions and mandates requiring state parties to implement domestic measures to enable them to adopt and implement the domestic measures through the established and institutionalized to oversee the successful implementation of the laws and realize the objectives both at a domestic and international level.  Efforts to eliminate maritime offenses have led to the universal ratification of maritime regulations to eliminate escape routes for all sea perpetrators (Johnson, 2013). . From this perspective, if all the laws were successfully implemented, all states would be enforced, and prosecutorial action against perpetrator s of certain crimes would be prosecuted following the international and transboundary ramifications.  Following this, the International community will achieve its goal as stipulated in the international maritime conventions. However, international conventions are measures taken at the domestic level since state success is solely based on applying the prescribed standards; therefore, this goal is not readily achieved. In essence, the application of maritime port security procedures has been a continuous process that is subject to ramifications and alterations to suit the transboundary jurisdictions (Moseley, 2009). Constant ramifications of the maritime port security antiterrorism procedures are due to the continuous multiplicity of maritime crimes such as terrorism at sea, drug, and human trafficking, which simultaneously leads to an outburst of organized crimes. Adopting these procedures is pertinent to training seafarers and maritime authorities of the risk threats at sea high bodies, improving maritime intelligence to stay up to date with terrorist tactics, teamwork, and coordination between government regulators and maritime agencies, and ensuring mandatory technical enforceability (Helmick, (2008).

In a bid to ratify and modify the maritime security system, the National Institute of Justice tasked the Police Executive Research Forum to bridge the gaps in maritime security after September 2011 (Pate, Taylor & Kubu, 2008). Through a detailed application of an exploratory and descriptive case study methodology, the researchers gained a deep understanding of maritime crimes’ core analysis. They provided concrete results on the practices and procedures that maritime agencies should implement. Although the study focused on the local practices, it highlighted the core practices and policies states ought to implement within their transboundary and jurisdictions. These practices include high-level awareness of risk factors or threats, prevention of an attack, creating a conducive ground to attack, cultivating a high response rate, and facilitating fast and effective attacks (Shelton, 1998). According to the researchers, these are the primary procedures that should govern the maritime sector at the domestic level.


Maritime security is complicated as the legal and jurisdictionally practices are carved depending on the coastal zones, shareable waterbodies, or evidenced waterbodies. Irrespective of this, all states within waterbodies canals and waterways are liable to the maritime antiterrorism procedures (Hamel, & Namountougou, 2013). Naval port-security antiterrorism procedures comprise numerous policies and practices that ensure peace and security while at sea. The rationale for conducting this research is housed on the notion that there is little literature on the antiterrorism department in the maritime sector. While numerous studies focus on maritime trade and transport, there are no concrete insights on maritime terrorism, a growing concern for many coastal and landlocked countries. The study will serve as the foundation for future research and help maritime agencies and governments address the imminent threats posed by terrorists. The research will also promote inter-organizational teamwork and coordination to facilitate implementing the existing procedures while ratifying them in the federal and domestic prescribed manner. From this perspective, it is pertinent to draw insights from reputable scholarly sources to ensure comprehensive data. This research will gather data from a wide array of sources through a qualitative and quantitative approach.

Research Method

The mixed-method research combines the qualitative and quantitative research methods into a single investigation. This research method’s prime objective is to draw the benefits of quantitative and qualitative research methods into the research. This is achieved by the purposeful collecting, analyzing, and integrating qualitative and quantitative data during the preliminary stages of the research to gain a comprehensive understanding of the issues under study (Pole, 2007). Traditionally qualitative research focuses on collecting and analyzing behaviors, trends, and attitudes. On the other hand, quantitative research is a multifaceted approach that allows the analysis to gather and analyze numerical data (Taguchi, 2018). The process involves a holistic and natural approach that enables the researcher to study objects in their natural state, this drawing logical and realistic insights. Qualitative research involves immersing oneself in the feelings, opinions, and ideas surrounding the research problem to get firsthand information that builds on data collected. The combination of the naturalistic approach and qualitative research allows the researcher to diversify and associate all aspects of the study population (Polkinghorne, 2005). In light of this, a mixed-method is essential as this research focuses on the behavior, perception, and attitudes of maritime authorities and terrorists. Collecting data centered on feelings, attitudes, and perceptions project the human experience and out rightly highlight the social interactions at sea with terrorists. In return, it implies a change in the maritime agencies and calls for redress by the government.

Quantitative research is built on gathering and analyzing statistical data that provides solutions to real-life problems logically and realistically by collecting quantitative data centered on understanding social reflection and realities of individuals, groups, cultures, stories, and real-life experiences. The process involves an exploratory phase that illuminates various aspects that were isolated while designing the research questions.  However, this may cause a colossal divergence that may change the research trajectory. In this regard, qualitative research counters the disadvantages of qualitative research and vice versa.

Research Design

This study adopts a multiple case study research design. Using this design will help the researchers develop a clear understanding of the maritime ports agencies’ antiterrorism procedures. A case study provides an in-depth detailed account of practices, policies employed by an individual group or an organization. The information gathered can range across a wide range of topics. However, case studies allow expression and exploration of real-life situations during an intensive and in-depth data collection process (Thornhill, Saunders, and Lewis, 2009). This research will focus on a single case or multiple case studies to accomplish the research design. To understand the maritime antiterrorism procedures, this research adopts a multiple case study from the U.S maritime port sector.

Data collection tools

Data collection plays a central role in the research process. Data collection facilitates the gathering and collection of new ideas and a unique set of information to build on existing data This research will utilize secondary data collection tools and techniques to evaluate maritime port agencies’ antiterrorism procedures. For this study, U.S. maritime regulators, seafarers, and maritime regulators will render rich and diverse information. The main actors in the marine sector are near the research problem. Information will be gathered by interviewing the sample population and detailed review of recently published reports, surveys, and the analysis of the U.S. Maritime sector website’s live updates about the antiterrorism procedures. This research fetched viable information from online articles, scholarly journals, and U.S. Maritime website to inform the study (Alsayed, Maguire-Wright, & Flickinger, 2016). This information paints a clear picture of the maritime industry’s complex and complicated nature, considering the high-risk factors and threats involved that can potentially disrupt major world trade and transport relations. The information gathered in case studies is generalized but can be categorized into two distinct areas: maritime antiterrorism procedures, impacts of antiterrorism procedures to the world trade involving naval transport, and formulation and implementation of port procedures.

The ethical approach to research

This study comprises engagement, interaction, and documentation of human subjects’ beliefs and attitudes in the maritime port authority. The course follows all the stipulated ethical guidelines when researching to maintain confidentiality and data documentation standards and quality.

Data analysis

This section illustrates the results as per the highlighted objectives

Maritime antiterrorism procedures,

Numerous antiterrorism procedures govern maritime ports and agencies. According to naval laws, all landlocked and coastal countries remain subject to the law. Although most states do not prescribe these laws and conventions, the implementation of marine procedures is essential to maintain peace, stability, and security at sea.  The provision of the convention codes provides a firm foundation for the world trade and transport systems’ operationalization.  The maritime acts stipulate the guidelines, practices, and procedures under which perpetrators in the sea can be prosecuted.  The methods allow the establishment of statutory agencies to enforce the maritime laws at both a domestic and international level. The statutory agencies allow ample caveat to avoid the invasion of ships or vessels accused of engaging in any terrorist activities.

Impacts of antiterrorism procedures to the world trade involving maritime transport

The maritime industry is a major driver of the world economy. The sector provides a great link to the world’s largest economies through trade and transportation of bulk and containerized products. The provision of a clear technical and logical framework facilitates a free-flowing exchange to spur greater economic growth. These procedures, guidelines, and practices will allow world trade to grow and make great strides in the process. Although the industry harbors many challenges and risks, it is of paramount importance for the seafarers and cargo handles to remain subject to certain codes of conduct to avoid infiltration and exploitation by terrorist groups.  Moseley 2009 argues that it is of paramount importance for the maritime agencies to be guided and registered under the legal code of conduct to cushion seafarers against the numerous sea hazards.  As stated earlier, the maritime industry is a high-risk endeavor that requires well-integrated mechanisms to allow world trade to flourish. Therefore having rigid and firm policies and regulations reduces the risk emanating from the security y gaps. Even though some states do not abide by the procedures, provision of these legal codes of conduct illustrates the right strategies for a coordinated attack on the trade and transport sector.

Implementation of port procedures.

Implementation and adoption of the maritime port security procedures are a formidable task that requires the international community’s concerted effort. Simultaneously, the cost of inaction is very dangerous and could potentially cripple the world economy. For instance, a well-coordinated terror attack on the trade and transport system would crumble a web of networks that rely on the economy, thus disrupting the world. While most of these procedures focus on the seafarers’ safety and the cargo, they serve a central role in the sustenance and maintenance of the world economy. There is also the need to apply the procedures due to the high-level risks of sea-related activities. Sea accidents are fatal and can result in the loss of billions of dollars. Ship-related accidents are mainly related to the management staff and security approaches implemented in the maritime agencies.

Conclusion and recommendation

Following the study findings, this section provides conclusions and recommendations based on the maritime authorities’ antiterrorism procedures. Maritime antiterrorism practices serve as instruments of maritime law. These procedures allow the proper operationalization and provision of legal codes of conduct in the marine port. As a subsidiary of the naval ports security, the antiterrorism docket displays an active, multifaceted approach to fight against global terrorism both at home and away.

Maritime procedures are set out rules and regulations that oversee the ports’ running to ensure safety and security at sea. Therefore it is of paramount importance for these security measures to be implemented at every stage. In furtherance, the maritime ports authorities should develop a legal framework to oversee marine ports’ running and supervision.



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