Assignment Questions Q.1 Write an abridged market research proposal for London Wanderers Football Club based on the brief outlined below. Your abridged proposal should have the following six components: (i) an executive summary, (ii) a background, (iii) research objectives (you should consider carefully whether the ones provided can be improved), (iv) research design (read the section carefully on ‘approaching the question below’), (v) ethical issues, and (vi) schedule sections only. There is no need to include sections on personnel specification, costs, and references. —-Beginning of case—- London Wanderers Football Club – Market Research Brief Zoe Brown is the marketing manager of London Wanderers Football Club (LWFC) Limited, a premiership football club. The club has an annual turnover of £250m, which breaks down into three equal revenue streams: (i) retail and merchandising, (ii) sponsorship and TV rights, and (iii) gate receipts. Zoe has decided to commission a pricing study to learn more about what value single match attendees place in the purchase of a one-day ticket (typically priced at around £32 per match for a Page 2 of 8 standard seat for Premiership clubs in 19/20 but actual price depends on seat location in the stadium; see: https://www.premierleague.com/news/1536734) as opposed to buying a season ticket (which allows a supporter to attend all home games that season, and which are typically priced between £600 and £1200 depending on the seat’s location in the stadium; see: https://www.theukrules.co.uk/rules/sport/football/season-ticket-prices.html). Most clubs offer some form of price discounts including discounts for those under 10 years old and under 18 years old, multiple attendees (e.g. family prices). The club’s ground, Cottage Park, has a capacity of 52,000 but only sells between 50-70% of the seats on match days. Around 50% of those attending are season ticket holders. LWFC face competition from other London premiership clubs, but it has traditionally charged around 20% less than rivals for match day tickets and 30% less for season tickets. LWFC would like to know if they can put up the price of their match-day tickets or switch match day supporters into purchasing season tickets and whilst still maintaining crowds of a similar size to those they are experiencing at present. They are also interested in determining whether they can offer different price packages, for example, for families, or for married/co-habiting couples. Part of the club’s marketing strategy is to drive up the number of women supporting the club from 15% to 20% over the next five years. At the same time, they would also like to know more about how match-day supporters perceive the prices of their merchandise and other services. Accordingly, Zoe is inviting proposals from research agencies and provides them with the following information concerning LWFC’s research objectives: 1. To understand supporters’ perceptions of existing prices for their all-seater stadium match day tickets and season tickets. 2. To understand supporters’ preferences for more expensive and less expensive pricing options for both main types of ticket (i.e. single match and season ticket). 3. To gain insight into how supporters view the prices for single match and season tickets at other clubs, and whether or not this impacts on how likely they are to buy an LWFC ticket. 4. To gain insight into how supporters view different price promotion packages for single match and season ticket holders, and how likely they are to positively respond to these if they were offered. 5. To understand women’s perceptions of the club at present and how they might be encourage to attend the club matches more. Budget and Timing The budget for this research is £30,000. It must be concluded, by the successful bidder, within four months of receiving the commission. —-End of case—- Q.2 Using the dataset provided (‘hobbit.sav’) based on a quantitative survey conducted with residents in Maryland (USA) where a new restaurant called the Hobbit’s Choice is due to be launched, undertake the following tasks: A. Analyse the descriptive statistics for the variables provided in the dataset and highlight five of those that you think would be of particular interest to the restaurant and why. B. Undertake a cross-tabulation of the dataset for five bivariate relationships that you think would be of particular interest to marketers. Run statistical tests of association on those bivariate relationships that you think would be of interest to marketers. Please explain any assumptions that you make, show and explain any statistically workings (e.g. tests of association), and interpret your findings. Page 3 of 8 C. Identify which variables are most closely correlated with how likely a respondent is to patronize (use) the restaurant? Explain the assumptions you make when you undertake statistical tests of correlation and make sure you show any statistical workings and associated scatterplots. Further Guidance Approaching the Questions Question 1: Research Design: London Wanderers Football Club · Before you begin writing this section of your assignment, and to help you with the background understanding necessary to tackle Question 1, consult the following resources: o Chapter 3, on ‘Marketing Research and Customer Insight’ in Baines, Fill, Rosengren & Antonetti (2019), Marketing, 5E, Oxford: Oxford University Press. There is an electronic copy of this book available here: https://bibliu.com/app/#/view/books/9780192555533/epub/OEBPS/Contents.html#pa ge_ix. o Chapter 10 on ‘Writing a Research Proposal’ of the course text: McGivern (2013), The Practice of Market Research 4E, Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. o The 2019 Market Research Society Code of Conduct, available here: https://www.mrs.org.uk/standards/code-of-conduct · To draw up an appropriate research design given the brief, you will need to skim-read Chapters 3, 5-9, 11, 13-15 of the McGivern (2013) text outlined above. Your abridged proposal must contain the following six components: (i) an executive summary outlining the key elements of the brief in one paragraph (ii) a background introduction to the market research problem in 1- 2 paragraphs (iii) the research objectives (you should improve the research objectives provided where that is possible), (iv) research design (see bullet below), (v) a paragraph on ethical issues (having consulted the MRS Code of Conduct), and (vi) schedule sections only (include a Gantt chart, here as an object so it does not contribute to the word count. There is no need to include sections on personnel specification, costs and references as would usually appear in a market research brief. Note: most of your word count should be used for the research design element of the brief. · You should focus on recommending only ONE form of empirical research, either qualitative or quantitative. When you write up the research design for that recommended research approach be sure to explain each of the following elements for it: (i) type of research recommended, (ii) the research objectives to be adopted (iii) the interviewing method to be used (e.g. personal, telephone, (e)mail, web for either qualitative or quantitative, unless you wish to propose a form of research which does not use the interviewing approach); (iv) the sampling plan to be adopted (v) the questions adopted for a qualitative study or the questionnaire for quantitative research (vi) the data analysis approach to be adopted. In each case, briefly justify your choices with a rationale for why you propose that approach/method. Add Harvard (Author-Date) references to these brief justifications. · Develop your proposal carefully to ensure that each element of the research design works in tandem with other elements. For example, it is no use recommending a quota sampling approach be used for qualitative research if you are recommending sampling using an online Page 4 of 8 panel study as it wouldn’t work. Equally, it is not a good idea to recommend lots of closed questions for a depth interview. · Always try to put yourself in the position of a critical reader, ask yourself how s/he would react to your arguments, how s/he would understand it, be persuaded by it. · Spell- and grammar-check your work carefully before you submit your work. Question 2: Quantitative Analysis of a Dataset: Hobbit Restaurant · Before you begin writing this section of your assignment, and to help you with the background understanding necessary to tackle Question 2, consult the following resources: · Chapter 15 on ‘Analysing Quantitative Data’ of the course text: McGivern (2013), The Practice of Market Research 4E, Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. · When writing up your statistical analyses, you should always briefly justify your choices with a rationale for why you propose that analytic approach/method. Add Harvard (Author-Date) references to these brief justifications. Also explain any assumptions that these tests rely on and how you have adhered to these. · To undertake the work required for this section, you will first need to prepare your data for analysis. This means: (i) reading the ‘hobbit.docx’ file, (ii) undertaking re-coding of your data in order to ensure the variables are in the right data form (i.e. nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio) for the tests you intend to undertake (iii) editing any tabular/graphical SPSS output so that it is interpretable to the reader. · When interpreting the data, make sure you explain any assumptions that you make about a particular statistical test (e.g. the form the data need to be in for particular variables) and/or any rules of thumb in interpretation of the statistical output (e.g. appropriate statistical significance levels, types of data required for particular tests and so on). Write up a data table for the dataset and place this in an Appendix for the assignment. If you wish to place more than one item in the Appendix you may do so, but you should then number the appendices and refer to them in your answer. You must not include more than 10 pages of Appendices. Conduct your descriptive analyses, cross-tabulations and statistical analyses (e.g. tests of association, correlation), explaining any assumptions on which these tests rely and any adjustments you’ve made to your data to account for these assumptions (e.g. recoding your data, transforming your data). Do not forget to interpret the data in the context of the scenario (i.e. that based on the sample’s responses to attitudinal and behavioural questions run for a restaurant). Also note that SPSS output needs editing and properly writing up and you will need to do this anyway to meet your essay word count and appendices length requirements. · Always try to put yourself in the position of a critical reader, ask yourself how s/he would react to your arguments, how s/he would understand it, be persuaded by it. Make sure therefore that you edit your work before you hand it in. · Spell- and grammar-check your work and check any mathematical/statistical calculations carefully before you submit your work. Please ensure that you have read the advice on assignment writing and referencing which is available at: https://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/business/forms/DL/assignment-writing-guidelines/view Page 5 of 8 All materials and sources should be appropriately referenced in the main body of your assignment (e.g. Author’s name, year of publication). Simply cutting and pasting material from a website is unacceptable and will be considered as plagiarism. The assignment should therefore be fully referenced throughout and contain an end of text reference/bibliography section. Any material used from a website must be referenced using the appropriate form for websites. Note references should only be drawn from websites which have academic merit (e.g. market research companies (e.g. Euromonitor/Mintel, or professional bodies like MRS/ESOMAR, rather than individual’s website or crowdsourced opinion like Wikipedia). Extensive guidance on referencing is given in your handbook. Please adhere to the word limit
Zoe Brown, the lead marketing manager of London Wanderers Football Club (LWFC) Limited, has embarked on a case analysis research to investigate whether they can change the pricing methods for single match purchase and seasonal tickets. Due to the existing competition between London clubs LWFC offers seasonal discounts for multiple attendees under 10 and 18 years, family prices to encourage more football lovers to purchase tickets. Over the last decade, LWFC has been operating on a 20% budget less during match days and 30% less for season tickets compared to the current market value as a strategy to curb competition from other London premiership clubs. In light of this approach, there is a need to implement new pricing methods to influence and convert the single match day attendees into purchasing season tickets whilst attracting more spectators to the stadium. Drawing from these insights, the marketing team will gather valid information on the spectator’s preferences, timing and factors influencing the purchase of tickets.
Furthermore, these changes will align with the club’s marketing strategy of bridging the gender gap in the club’s spectators. This study will employ qualitative research designs in studying the LWFC supporter’s perceptions of ticket pricing and preferences. Through this approach, the research will draw information from rich source of existing literature. At the same time, the empirical studies retrieve credible information from various projects and marketing strategies. The credibility of this research is subject to academic integrity, which is a critical ethical consideration among researchers.
Background of Study
Zoe Brown is the lead marketing manager for London Wanderers Football Club (LWFC) Limited, a premiership football club. The club accrues a gross income of £250m annually, which is allocated to retail and merchandising, issuance of entrance pass and sponsorship and broadcasting on various TV stations. Recently Zoe has Under her leadership Zoe has embarked on a case analysis, case management research to investigate the impacts of introducing new methods of pricing methods for one-day event ticket which is currently priced at £32 per match and to seasonal tickets which currently ranges between £600-£1200and provides complete coverage for attendees to watch all home games that season depending on the seat’s location in the stadium (The UK Rules, 2021). Given the stiff competition between premiership clubs, London Wanderers Football Club, offers subsidized season ticket prices such as discounts, offers and coupons to multiple attendees under 10 and 18 years, family prices to encourage more football lovers to purchase tickets. Consequently many clubs have been forced to introduce discounts coupons and offers attract more supporters’ during match day. This has limited purchase of seasonal tickets as majority of the premiership clubs have a wide range of offers and discounts on match day. Cottage Park, one of the club’s largest grounds, hosts 52,000 people, but only 50-70% of the slots is purchased during match days. Approximately 50% of the attendees are season ticket holders. For decades LWFC has been operating on a 20% budget less during match days and 30% less for season tickets as a strategy to curb competition from other London premiership clubs. In light of this approach, there is a need to implement new pricing methods to influence and convert the single match day attendees into purchasing season tickets whilst attracting more supporters. Drawing from these insights, the marketing team will gather valid information on the spectator’s preferences, based on lifestyles, value of service and merchandise. For example, the club will offer different price packages for cohabiting /married couples and families.
Changing the pricing method will drastically affect the supporters’ view of the tickets and has the potential to negatively affect their purchasing behavior. Although the value of the ticket largely depends on the seat location in the stadium, the quality of merchandise, services will also play a crucial role in the purchase of the match-day and season tickets.
However, these changes align with the club’s marketing strategy of bridging the gender gap in the club’s spectators. Currently, the number of women supporting the club is 15% which is significantly low compared to the male’s spectators. As part of its marketing strategy LWFC is geared to drive up the number of women supporting the club to 20% over the next five years. Following this transformative approach to creating a safe and friendly environment for all spectators, there is an increasing need for the marketing team to investigate perceptions/views of attendees to determine the quality of merchandise and services offered during match day.
Numerous studies have been formulated to study the factors that contribute to supporters’ purchase of single match-day and seasonal tickets. The findings show that how the supporters’ are treated and the quality of service and merchandise is a key determinant if they are willing to purchase tickets. Scholars argue that motivation is lowest when the services are minimal. The effect of globalization on the workplace has increased diversity among the premiership club supporters, which highlights the ability to withdraw support. Furthermore, the different cultural backgrounds influence how supporters’ comprehend the culture and distribution of services in the stadium. In this light, a study that addresses the shortcomings of the standard approaches employed in service, quality of merchandise can facilitate an understanding of how club supporters’ can be appropriately motivated to influence their signups and purchase of seasonal tickets. The conclusions made in the investigation will be imperative in identifying gaps in knowledge that require to be handled and in enhancing marketing activities across diverse populations. Resultantly, this will be imperative for premiership clubs seeking to improve their businesses and those entering into the markets. The contribution of the research will also enhance the role of marketing directors in sales, pricing methods, and managing labor in the clubs.
The general objective of this research is to examine if changing or switching up match day price tickets will influence single match attendees into purchasing season tickets will affect the crowd turn up during the season.
Determining supporters view of existing prices for stadium match day tickets and season tickets?
Determining supporters’ preferences for more expensive and less expensive pricing options for both single match and season tickets?
To gain insight into how supporters view the prices for a single match and season tickets at other clubs and whether or not this impacts how likely they are to buy an LWFC ticket.
To gain insight into how supporters view different price promotion packages for a single match and season ticket holders and how likely they are to respond to these if they were offered positively.
To understand women’s perceptions of the club and identify how they might be encouraged to attend the club matches more.
Meeting the objectives will be achieved following the qualitative research paradigm. Notably, the study is focused on the behaviors influenced by reward systems, services and value of the matches in a diverse cultural setting. Sociologists believe that people are creative and actively influencing their social reality. In this light, the researcher should not have any intervention in the study. This alludes to the notion that the reality of one person is different from that of another, which means that there are multiple realities. The epistemological assumptions hold a subjectivist view, which highlights that subjective interpretations of the phenomena under study are imperative in developing knowledge. This advocates for involvement and interaction with the participants to gather insights.
To develop a clear understanding of LWFC supporters’ perceptions, there is a need to draw insights from people’s experiences from the critical clubs in London. The marketing team will achieve this by adopting a multiple case study research design. Case studies allude to an intensive approach to research focusing on an individual, group, or organization. The information gathered in case studies can be generalized over several units. Case studies facilitate an exploration of a real-life phenomenon through a detailed and in-depth collection of data (Thornhill, Saunders, and Lewis, 2009, p. 475). Scholars can accomplish this research design by focusing on a single case or multiple cases. For this research, a multiple case study is adopted to facilitate gathering insights from the key Hong Kong industries:
- Retail and merchandising
- Sponsorship and TV rights
- Pricing of Gate receipts.
- Club services
Focus on the four aspects will increase the volume of in-depth data available from multiple sources. The application of multiple case studies facilitates understanding the similarities and differences between the different sectors in how supporters’ and officials will respond to the change of existing pricing methods for match day and seasonal tickets. The differences and similarities identified will help to develop literature that highlights the crucial influences. Nevertheless, case studies are often criticized due to the lack of sufficient scientific outcomes and testable generalization of the results.
This study will employ multiple case study research designs in studying the LWFC supporter’s perceptions of ticket pricing and preferences. Through this approach, the research will draw the rich source of existing literature. At the same time, the empirical studies retrieve credible information from various projects and the domain of marketing strategies. This research aims to evaluate the existing supporter’s view of the marketing strategies and pricing methods of the London Wanderers Football Club. This research will utilize primary data collection methods to examine existing literature and empirical data to ascertain the supporters’ perceptions in purchasing match day and seasonal tickets. This method includes retrieving data from the LWFC publications, London Clubs publications, online articles on supporters’ attendance, and media interviews with representatives of the LWFC or officials from the clubs, Websites on match day and seasonal tickets purchases. The data will be obtained from diverse databases such as Google Scholar, JSTOR, Research Gate, Emerald, official sites of the institutions, as mentioned earlier, and other credible online journals.
The complex nature of supporters’ perceptions demands that studying price increase success to be undertaken under a flexible and reliable approach to ensure that the study is credible and contributes appropriately to academics and practice. In this light, this proposed research market proposal employs qualitative research methodologies. Recent studies have shown that the successful increment of seasonal and match day tickets is associated with the willingness of the supporters to purchase. Existing Literature review shows that there is a consensus among scholars that successful change of supporters’ perceptions on the existing pricing methods must consider the budgetary measures, schedule adherence, confirmation of match day dates, retail and merchandising.
This study will focus on London Wanderers Football club supporters’ across the country. This is primarily because they are heavily invested in the clubs performance and growth as an entity. The club attracts supports across the country and therefore outlining the supporters’ as the main component of interest will play a significant role in informing this study. This study will target 100 respondents with 50 of the supporters in urban cities while the rest are supporters’ in the rural areas. Sourcing information across a diverse population who are actively engaged with the activities of the club in their jurisdiction areas and the field will contribute to the development of the club
Sampling remains a critical aspect of research being it selects a unit of the whole population known as a sample ( Ledford and Gast, 2014, p.20). In this study, purposive sampling was adopted to obtain adequate data for analysis. This necessitated a more accessible collection of data.
Briefly explain your views on the existing prices for the all seater stadium match day tickets and season tickets.
In your assertion, please explain the value of single match day tickets compared to season tickets in London Wanderers Football Club.
What are some of the marketing strategies that other clubs have implemented adopted and how this is likely to impact their willingness to buy a LWFC ticket?
Briefly explain how you perceive various promotional packages and for single match and season ticket holders and whether or not they would respond positively to them if offered.
How adequate are services and merchandise provided by LWFC to attract and maintain supporters’ loyalty.
How effectively are having engagements with supporters’ encouraged in LWFC?
Briefly explain the marketing team strategies adopted to drive up the number of women supporting the club.
To what extent do you involve the marketing manager in the management of supporters’ views?
Briefly list and explain the challenges affecting the London Wanderers Football Club?
Data collection and procedures
Data collection refers to the process of obtaining and extracting raw facts from the respondents or variables under study. Data collection plays a crucial role in compiling sensitive information from the responses and pooling reliable knowledge for the research to assess the behavior, trend and relationship under study. For the most part this study will adopt both primary and secondary data. This is primarily because the rich data building on this study is either obtained by interviewing specific actors in the industry or review of published materials on the subject matter under examination. Therefore this data includes LWFC publications, Annual marketing reports, Institutional documents, online articles on premiership clubs, and media interviews with representatives of London Wanderers Football Limited Club, or officials from the club, Websites on sports, and Journals on Premiership clubs. Utilizing both primary and secondary data was conceptualized on the fact that supporters’ perceptions are inevitable to change. Therefore it is of paramount importance for the researcher to fetch current and existing data to offer detailed and specific information about the subject under study. Initially the researcher will distribute the interview schedule through the drop and pick method.
Data analysis approach
Data analysis is the process of cumulatively finding out the relationship between examined variables and the behavioral nature of units under examination (Harland, 2014). This study will adopt a qualitative research approach. This is primarily because the study will focus entirely on assessing the supporters’ perceptions for the effectiveness of the development of new marketing strategies such as change of tickets prices for both match-day and season tickets. Furthermore the study will provide graphical illustrations of the outcomes. The findings from the analyzed data will be interpreted, and checked for relevance against the reviewed literature.
The credibility of this research is subject to academic integrity, which is a critical ethical consideration among researchers. Notably, the information gathered about these case studies will be drawn from sources that involved people spending significant time and resources to develop primary and secondary data. Resultantly, the research will uphold academic integrity by appropriately referencing the material gathered from the different sources used in data collection.
This research entails the engagement of human subjects who work for different organizations in LWFC. In this light, ethical considerations must be upheld when conducting the research. The information emerging from this research is likely to involve sensitive information related to the personal lives of the participants involved or their employers. As a result of this study will uphold anonymity, where no sensitive information that authorized personnel can use to identify an individual will be included in the research (Connelly, 2014, p. 54). The research will also ensure high levels of privacy and confidentiality when engaging the participants. The data gathered will be protected using strong passwords and kept under lock and key. Participation in the research will be voluntary to encourage individuals to offer truthful and relevant information to the research (Ketefian, 2015, p. 164). The researcher will also avoid questions that might be sensitive in the context of Covid19, considering that some participants might have been adversely affected.
|Activity||Week 1||Week 2||Week 3||Week 4||Week 5||Week 6||Week 7|
|Brainstorm about literature review||X||X|
|Draft literature review||X|
|Devise literature review||x||x||x|
- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Frequency: Approximately 100% of the residents interviewed eat at an upscale restaurant at least once every two weeks. Summarization of the frequency measures of visits per week aids the restaurant management team in identify the target market’s lifestyle.
Mean Distribution. Computation of the average amount of dollars participants spend per month in restaurants draws insights in the budgetary allocations of the Hobbit restaurant.
Range: In descriptive statistics computing the highest value minus the lowest value allows researchers to speculate a broad spectrum of the immense possibilities while conducting research. For example in this case distribution the numbers of people who subscribe to City Magazine are 181
Median- Observation of the most preferred pricing option, meal composition, without distorting the original data or losing important detail facilitates implementation of the residents’ ideas during menu creation and price matrix. Median plays a crucial role in structuring information based on centrality of the variables without projecting what the population might think.
The Mode-Identifying the variables that appear more than once in the dataset aids in curating menus, price range that appeal to the residents. The most reoccurring is an illustration of the preferred option.
One of the most common bivariate relationships is the simple Scatter diagram. In this case scenario a simple scatter diagram explores the linear relationships between two variables. This type of exploration appeals to marketing team as it explores the association between two variables both in asymmetrical and symmetrical analysis. For example in the computation below the outcome visualizes the p. This relationship assumes that the other forms of relationships circle, square will be detected. As a result this statistical test will have type II errors as it rejects the null hypothesis test of independence (the two variables are independent and correlated in the universe although the variables are in reality dependernt, just not linearly.
Bivariate relationships in the analysis include; eating at the restaurant, listen to radio, watching local news, reading newspaper, subscribing to magazine, gender, patron habit, and very likely patron. Marketers are people who are interested in moving sales. Thus they are highly concerned with a high customer base, hence information flow is critical. Research has shown that marketing team is very keen on information transmission (Kurmar et.al, 2020). Thus, of importance to the team will be the most appropriate means of communication to their customers. Besides, they would be interested with identifying the type of customers the hotel should focus on, which pegs to their characteristics including their gender. The team would be interested in knowing the best channel for their female and male customers.
The results as shown on the table below indicted that the number of males and female customers are not statistically different with respect to their level of listen to the radio, TV, as well as reading newspaper. However, there is a statistical difference in level of subscription to the city magazines, with the number of males being statistically higher than females. The results also indicate that there is a positive correlation between gender and watching TV, as well and magazine subscription. While there is a negative association with listening to radio and reading newspaper. These results are an indication that marketers should focus on having their major information transmission being TV and magazines.
|Listening to radio||Yes||195||190|
|TV local news||Yes||184||172||0.608||0.039|
|Subscription to magazine||Yes||101||80||3.049**||0.087*|
It is important to assess the transmission means that the customers most likely to visit the restaurant would use so that the marketers who place more emphasis on those means. The results of the study as shown on the table below indicate that there is a negative correlation between the communication channels and likely patrons. The results indicate that there is low use of TV and magazines for the likely patron, and thus the marketing team would opt to do marketing through the radio and local newspapers. But also, use magazines and TV as new means, to penetrate a bigger market.
|Variable||Response||Very likely patron||Chi-square||Correlation|
|Listening to radio||Yes||71||314|
|TV local news||Yes||72||0||10.852***||-0.165***|
|Subscription to magazine||Yes||64||8||67.49***||-0.411***|
Part C: correlation
Undertaking correlation between the variable likely to patronize and all the other variables. Results of variables that have a significant association are displayed on the table below. Correlation below ±0.5 is considered weak, between ±0.5 and ±0.7 is considered moderate and above ±0.7 are strong associations (Mukaka, 2012). As shown on the table below, there is a strong positive association between likelihood to patronize and preference of formal waiters, unusual desserts, unusual entrees, elegant décor, and income before tax, income and very likely patrons. On the other hand there is a strong negative association with simple décor and probable patron choice. The strong negative association indicates that as one increases their likelihood of patronizing the restaurant, their preference for simple décor decreases, and their probability of choice decline. On the other hand as their likelihood improves, their income will be increasing, preference for elegant décor will be improving, and will have higher preference for formal waiters, unusual entrees, and unusual desserts.
|Listening to radio||-0.128**||Weak negative|
|Radio program often listened to||0.307***||Weak positive|
|Local TV viewer||-0.449***||Weak negative|
|Section of newspaper frequently read||-0.393***||Weak negative|
|Subscription to city magazine||-0.518***||Moderate negative|
|Prefer waterfront view||-0.555***||Moderate negative|
|Prefer driving less than 30 minutes||0.611***||moderate positive|
|Preference of formal waiter staff||0.758***||Strong positive|
|Prefer unusual desserts||0.727***||Strong positive|
|Prefer large variety of entrees||0.61***||Moderate positive|
|Prefer unusual entrees||0.735***||Strong positive|
|Prefer simple décor||-0.761***||Strong negative|
|Prefer elegant décor||0.748***||Strong positive|
|Prefer string quartet||0.683***||Moderate positive|
|Prefer jazz combo||-0.361***||Weak negative|
|Year born||-0.398***||Weak negative|
|Highest education||0.565***||Moderate positive|
|Zip code||-0.404***||Weak negative|
|Before tax income||0.815***||Strong positive|
|Probable patron choice||-0.823***||Strong negative|
|Very likely patron||0.757***||Strong positive|
Similar results are portrayed by the figures below, where upward sloping fitted lines indicate a strong positive correlation/association, and downward falling lines indicate negative associations.
Positive association’s graphs
Negative association’s graphs
Connelly, L.M., 2014. Ethical considerations in research studies. Medsurg Nursing, 23(1), pp.54-56.
Ketefian, S., 2015. Ethical considerations in research. Focus on vulnerable groups. Investigación y Educación en Enfermería, 33(1), pp.164-172.
Kumar Sharma, N., Chen, W.K. and Lai, K.K., 2020, December. Challenges and Prospects for Digital Marketers while Dealing with SMEs: An Interview. In 2020 The 4th International Conference on Software and e-Business (pp. 25-31).
Ledford, J.R. and Gast, D.L. eds., 2014. Single case research methodology: Applications in special education and behavioral sciences. Routledge
Mukaka, M.M., 2012. A guide to appropriate use of correlation coefficient in medical research. Malawi medical journal, 24(3), pp.69-71.
Thornhill, A., Saunders, M., and Lewis, P., 2009. Research methods for business students. Prentice-Hall: London