Choosing any 1 of the topics above,
use three sources, 3 pages (not including the cover page and bibliography section,
-citations in APA format
-minimum 750 words
-Introduction — State your thesis and the purpose of your research paper clearly. What is the chief reason you are writing the paper?
Body — This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement.
Conclusion — Restate or reword your thesis, describe all benefits of your selected technology for the particular business or industry.
The History of the Internet
In the past couple of years, the Internet has been a vital component in almost everyone’s life. It has made life more comfortable, more practical, and entertaining. However, most people don’t know what it took for the Internet to reach today. However, it is prudent to say that it took a few smart individuals who worked hard to ensure success. Knowing the evolution and the history of the Internet will enable us to appreciate its history, the excellent work the pioneers, did as well as everyone who played a role every step of the way.
Internet history began in the USA in the earlier 1960s, when the earth was bipolar: the United States and the Soviet Union rivaled for the extension of their influence around the world, looking with extreme caution and mistrust at each other. Sputnik, the first space satellite, was started by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957. The success of Sputnik required a US response (Cohen-Almagor).
This was a matter of pride, as well as governance. The US Defense Department reacted to this by creating an Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) that sponsored research that would guarantee that in every technological competition, the US competed and excelled with the USSR. ARPA’s goal was to develop creative research ideas, create substantial technological impacts that went beyond traditional evolutionary strategies, and produce prototype systems. An ARPA agency was the IPTO (Information Processing Techniques Office), which sponsored informatics exploration to coordinate American campuses and study labs to establish a tactical communication Net (Command as well as Regulator Study), which could make communications power exist to the administration (Sherman).
A prevalent myth is that the Defense Sector claimed if the Soviets could launch satellites, they could also deploy nuclear missiles over long distances. The primary concern, as the myth goes, was the weakness to attack networks, given that networks were based on the one central control feature at that time: once the central command point in the network had stopped functioning, the whole network could become impracticable. The researchers were required to spread the network to be preserved after one or extra contact centers had been targeted. Throughout the war, they spoke of a decentralized archive of military secrets. The ARPA Network founders, however, say that ARPANET is not connected to developing a Nuclear War Resistant Network: it was never the case of the ARPANET, only the unconnected Nuclear War RAND report on a protected speech is known.
Later on, the Internetwork stressed the solidity and resilience of large virtual network sections, such as resisting the losses. ARPA’s father, one of the pioneers of digital communications in ARPANET, Leonard Kleinrock, clarified that the possible explanation for ARPA’s decision to build a network was to allow its scientists to share sophisticated assets (hardware, software, services, and software tools). It should not be covered from an attack by the military. David D. Clark, the senior researcher for nuclear survival at the MIT Computer Science Laboratory who served in ARPANET in the earlier time of the 1970s, said there was no hint of nuclear survival in the ARPA Record of the 1960s. J.C.R. Licklider was appointed as the first manager for the office for information processing in 1962. His function was to link up the Department of Defense’s main computers through a distributed global network. In a “galactic” computer network, Licklider has outlined a vision— a worldwide integrated array of computing nodes that everyone can access information and programs remotely. Paul Baran (1964) of the RAND Corporation is not only concerned with the myth which linked ARPANET to the building of a powerful, dispersed network that would permit the US to take subsequent attack (Sherman). British National Physical Laboratory, Donald Davies commenced to think in 1965concerning packet networks and invented the word packet.
Three physicists learned about the same technology at three different locations independently: Leonard Kleinrock was the earliest to formulate packet switching’s fundamental values. Baran conceived the concept of standardizing addressed message frames and flexible alternative routing processes with centralized control at RAND. And Davies also figured that a fast message-changing service, wherein long messages were broken in separated chunks, to minimize the risk of congestion, was required for communications between computers (Castells). The pieces he called packets, and the methodology was termed the packet switching. The ARPA scientists provided Davies network design. The Arpanet and the local NPL network have become the first two worldwide computer networks. In the 1960s, packet switching was a radically new idea. Users had access to it using computers and printers in other destinations and transported files between computers through the Network Control Protocol (NCP) of ARPANET.
UNIX was established at Bell Lab in 1971, and many scientists were quickly praised. UNIX offers a range of computer effort programs. It is a multi-user, secure, multi-tasking framework for servers, desktops, including advanced laptops. In the year 1972, the first Free Packet Data Facility was established by ALOHANET, linked to the ARPANET and a trade type of the TELNET. This was a relatively easy procedure with the Telnet protocol. It was a minimum framework that allowed fundamental communication between two host machines. The ARPANET was linked to the worldwide hosts one year later, in 1973. The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) was developed and operated using the Architecture Client Servers. The formatting for the network traded data file was indicated in the file transfer protocol. FTP allowed files to be shared among machines. Shifting files could seem simple, but it wasn’t easy to differentiate between machines (Sherman). FTP was the first request allowing two computers, rather than treating one terminal to another, to collaborate as peers. The exercise of an electronic debate group named the “Message Services Group” was announced on June 7, 1975, by the Program Supervisor at the Data Handling Procedures Office of ARPA, Steve Walker. In 1979, Tom Truscott, Jim Ellis, and Steve Belovin developed the poor man’s ARPANET, which was designed to exchange information through email and message boards, utilizing telephone lines and the Berkeley Unix protocols, between Duke University and North Columba University.
The Internet came into its commercial phase in the mid-1980s. ARPANET would pursue its progressive exploration operations, and MILNET (for the army network) would be allocated for army usages, which requires increased safety (Castells). In 1984, the Dept. of Security divided ARPANET into two specialized networks. Connections have been built to allow users to interact between the two networks. By the end of the 1980s, there were many people (mainly professionals) utilizing email. In 1997, the world’s longest single-cable network was established by Fiber Optic Link across the Globe (FLAG), which offers set-up for next-generation internet tools.
Castells, M. (2002). Lessons from the History of the Internet. The Internet Galaxy, 9–35. Doi: 10.1093/prof:oso/9780199255771.003.0002
Cohen-Almagor, R. (2013). Internet history. In Moral, Ethical, and Social Dilemmas in the Age of Technology: Theories and Practice (pp. 19-39). IGI Global.
Sherman, J. (2003). The history of the Internet. New York: F. Watts.