Toulmin-structured argument

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Assignment Instructions

Instructions: Compose a Toulmin-structured argument and craft an annotated bibliography.

Make sure that you choose a public debate with clear sides and staked.

  1. Then, you need to research that debate in order to narrow the topic’s scope.
  2. Ensure your topic is narrow enough to accomplish a quality Toulmin argument. Do notchoose a general topic such as abortion. You must narrow to something specific, new, and debatable.


  1. Requirements: 
  • This should be a thesis-driven essay. All paragraphs should support the thesis while also adhering to the Toulmin model.
  • Length is 800-1000 words
  • The essay must be written in third person. No “I,” “you,” “we,” “our,” etc. usage.
  • This essay must include a minimum of five Three should be peer-reviewed from Google Scholar.



Make sure to include the following sections in your essay:

an introduction and claim,
and a conclusion.

Within the body of your essay, make sure to include the following in any order:

support for your claim,
opposing or alternate views,
the strengths and weaknesses of your opponents’ claims,
and your rebuttals of their claims.

The Annotated Bibliography

An annotated Bibliography (AB) is due with your Toulmin essay. List each source as it will appear on the Works Cited/Reference page of your essay. Summarize each source in two or three grammatically-correct sentences, and indicate how it will be useful to your project. These short discussions are the “annotations.”

The following is a sample of an annotated bibliography entry

Clark, Irene L. The Genre of Argument. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace, 1998. Print.

Clark’s textbook identifies the major steps to developing a well-researched and well-written argumentative essay. It is older, but still contains much useful material on process. Professional essays are included in the text as models. It will help me mostly with writing and organization, since internet research has changed since 1998.







Should the Driving Age be raised to 18 years?


In today’s world, young drivers are a common phenomenon on the roads. Most of them use motor vehicles as their primary mode of transportation, a clear illustration of the power invested in them. These drivers are eager to experiment behind the wheel and have a wonderful time strolling around town. They are like a child who has learned how to walk. The world of young drivers has become a source of fascination as well as contention, in our society. Networks such as Auto Sport that air Formula I air live exhilarating car races driven by youngsters because it sells, but one cannot help but wonder, how can featuring flaunting young drivers overspeeding like madmen be a positive thing? Well, it is not. Just because young drivers are seen exhibiting theatrics with motor vehicles does not mean young teens out here should be experimenting.

In 1903, obtaining a driver’s license did not require one to pass a test; Massachusetts and Missouri were the first states in offering ta driver’s license. A few months later, every country in the US provided and exam to obtain a driver’s license. In recent years, getting a driver’s license was every teenager’s dream. However, the tendency is slowly fading away; the number of teenagers acquiring one has declined (Nix, 2016).  According to the 2016 report by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, less than 25% of 16 years old have licensed a drop from approximately 46% in 1983.

Memis, Z. B. (2014). Obesity and Associated Factors — Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013.

This Journal provides key figures and statistics that will provide insights into starting the first annotated paragraph. It is a new material that provides a clear picture of the trends in this process

The journal is cited in many scholarly works around the world.  It will help me visualize the process as it contains tables and maps.

There should be more reforms to rise the driving age to 18 years to encourage physical activity/exercises to slow down on the high rates of obesity among teenagers. The Saudi Health Information Survey shows that about 3.6 million people aged 15 years and above were obese, accounting for 28.7% of the population. With the prevalence ranging from 24.1% among men to 33.5% among women. 81.0% of the participants stated eating a balanced diet. Still, a large percent were physically inactive. Men regularly work 46/0% of the time while women rarely work out recording 75.1 % of physical inactivity Driving every day continuously without engaging in any form of physical activity is dangerous to your health and can cause obesity. While Health experts educate and create awareness about the significant risks associated with obesity, it is high time young adults think started being physically active and minding their health.

Davison, K. W. (2008). Children’s Active Commuting to School: Current Knowledge and Future Directions. PREVENTING CHRONIC DISEASE.

This journal provides a detailed analysis of the physical, psychological, and emotional state of teenagers and how this influences their behavior and thoughts. It is older, but still provides vital information regarding this essay. This journal is cited in academic, scholarly, and professional works as a reference point. It will help me in crafting and structure of valid arguments.

The driving age should be raised to 18 years to allow teens to adopt other modes of commuting, such as riding bikes and walking teenagers to avoid cardiovascular diseases. The National Household Travel Survey shows that the rates of walking or biking have relatively declined among students between 5-15 years compared from 2001 to 1969.  Besides, Health Styles data reveals that students who live a mile away from school still commute.  The decrease in biking and walking has led to a decline in levels of inactivity and dormancy that may lead to obesity. With many avenues creating awareness about the health benefits of regular physical exercise, teens need to think twice about commuting to and from school every day. Although research has commenced in this area and many scholars are pulling resources to come up with viable solutions. Teachers and parents should encourage and help their children to exercise daily.

Memish, Z. S. (2014, Octomber 1). Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1990–2010. National Institutes of Health.

The journal identifies the significant health risks associated with reckless driving by young drivers. It covers a relatively vast period but accounts for all the cases that happened during the time. Many scholarly works have cited it as sources of reference. It will help me mostly in portraying a clear picture of risks, and potential damage young drivers can cause on our roads

There should be more laws to punish road traffic offenders while driving to slow down the rates of deaths and disabilities. The researcher employed the Global Burden of Disease 2010, and this methodology indicated that road traffic accidents and Non-infectious diseases are the leading cause of disability and death in the Kingdom of Saudia Arabia. The reports also indicate road accidents as a significant cause for Disability assisted Life years. Violating simple driving rules or even traffic lights while driving is risky and causes long term disabilities or death. Therefore, it is imperative to impose hefty fines and education on the consequences. People might exercise more caution and adhere to the driving rules. There should also be more laws to punish road traffic offers while driving to slow down the rate of deaths. While road traffic police are vigorously making anti-obstruction laws. Local administrators should see to it that more officers are deployed in the roads to provide maximum surveillance.

The driving age should be raised to 18 years to allow the development of cognitive skills in teenagers to deal with severe conditions on the roads. 75 % of road carnages occur due to a lack of proper metacognition skills.  Teenagers can miss crucial steps such as that is loopholes to avoid, scanning for traffic, overspeeding, and distraction by things outside the vehicle. A teenager faced with all these scenarios is very likely to cause an accident. Rise in the driving age will more education and experience; teens’ will become acquainted with road conditions. The age limit should be higher to allow critical thinkers on our roads. Although parents, teachers are busy making appeals to the lawmakers to make reforms. Driving schools and Instructors could add extra staff to address this priority.

Connect Us. (2019). 16 Pros and Cons of Raising the Driving Age. Retrieved October 28, 2019, from Connect Us:

This website identifies the advantages and disadvantages of increasing driving to 18 years. It will help me summarize the essay by highlighting clear, concise benefits for rising the driving age.


Exposing teenagers to the grave and imminent dangers cannot be justified. It is the collective responsibility of the adults, experts, and teachers in the society rally for laws and reforms that protect and impact them positively. Society should not be endorsing risky laws that place their teenagers in great danger. The road conditions and motor skills complexities that excite adult should not be worth the physical and psychological torture. Young adults should be guided to identify and nurture their passions, skills, and capabilities, and that is what society and media should be endorsing. It is time to say no early driving for teenagers and find better constructive activities for teens to be competitive. (Connect Us, 2019)




Connect Us. (2019). 16 Pros and Cons of Raising the Driving Age. Retrieved October 28, 2019, from Connect Us:

Davison, K. W. (2008). Children’s Active Commuting to School: Current Knowledge and Future Directions. PREVENTING CHRONIC DISEASE.

Memis, Z. B. (2014). Obesity and Associated Factors — Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013.

Memish, Z. S. (2014, Octomber 1). Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 1990–2010. National Institutes of Health.

Nix, E. (2016). when was the first US driver’s Lincense iisued. Retrieved October 28, 2019, from A&E Television Networks, LLC.: A&E Television Networks, LLC.



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